Chemical Bonds Why Atoms Combine? Why Would Elements Want to Combine? Most elements are unstable The only stable elements are the _____?
So elements combine to become _____? Formulas Formulas are used to represent a shorthand form of a compound H20 is the formula for water This tells us there are 2 hydrogen atoms
and 1 oxygen atom in this compound Rules for Writing Formulas The cation USUALLY comes first The anion USUALLY comes last Cation- positive charged atom Anion- negative charged atom Which is Which? Sodium is the _______?
Chlorine is the _______? Calcium is the _______? Oxide is the ________? Stable Elements Unless the element is a noble gas, to achieve a stable form of itself it needs a full outer shell of electrons (8 electrons) To do this we combine the right number
of elements to become stable We always look to the charges of each of the elements Lets Try To Become Stable Combine sodium and chlorine Combine Chlorine with itself Two ions from opposite sides of the table form IONIC BONDS
Which example from above is a compound with an ionic bond? Continued Covalent bonds keep non-metals attached to each other Oxygen in our air is found as O2 Oxygen bonds with a covalent bond
Ionic vs. Covalent Ionic compounds exchange electrons Covalent compounds share electrons Covalent Bond (Copy) Common Ionic Compounds NaCl KCl MgCl2
MgO Common Covalent Compounds CH4 H20 HCl O2 N2
Assignment Write the name for the following compounds: Write the chem.
Formula for the following: 1. 1. 2. LiBr
CaCl2 3. AlCl3 3. 4.
KI MgF2 4. Sodium chloride Magnesium oxide Cesium chloride Iron (II) oxide Tin (II) chloride
5. 2. 5. 1st Thing 1st Copy the list of
Polyatomic Ions from the right What is a polyatomic ion? Poly means many Many atoms is the meaning Charge Name Formula 1+ Ammonium NH4
1- Acetate C2H3O2 2- Chlorate ClO3 Hydroxide
Nitrate OH NO3 Carbonate CO3 Sulfate
3- Phosphate SO4 PO4 Binary Compounds We have been working mostly with
binary compounds (bi-meaning two) NaCl is a binary compound Be sure to add ide to replace the end of the second element (oxide, chloride) Back to Polyatomic Ions The charge of the 1st element must equal the charge of the polyatomic ion
K(CO3) Is this right? No, Why? K is a +1 and Chlorate is a 2 K2(CO3) Is this right? Yes Hydrates If water is part of an ionic compounds structure we call this a hydrate
An example is Cobalt Chloride pentahydrate This is written as CoCl5 H20 Anhydrous This is the removal of that water Anhydrous means without water
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