Chapter

Chapter

CHAPTER 6 Supporting I/O and Storage Devices Objectives Learn about the general approaches you need to take when installing and supporting I/O and mass storage devices Learn how to install and configure several I/O devices, such as barcode readers, biometric devices, digital cameras, webcams, graphic tablets, and touch screens Learn how to install and configure adapter cards

Objectives Learn about supporting the video subsystem, including selecting a monitor and video card and supporting dual monitors and video memory Learn how to support optical drives and flash memory devices Basic Principles For Supporting Devices I/O devices may be internal or external (peripheral device)

Every device is controlled by software device drivers device drivers must be written for the OS you are using simple devices, such as the keyboard and mouse, are controlled by the system BIOS and do not require device drivers Windows has embedded device drivers for many devices Safe mode Basic Principles For Supporting Devices Best guide for installation and support the

manufacturer of the device. Some devices need application software Best example of this is a scanner. A device is no faster than the port/slot it is designed for USB3 device used on a PC with only USB 2 support Use an administrator account in Windows when installing devices UAC (User Account Control)

Basic Principles For Supporting Devices Problems are sometimes solved by updating drivers or firmware Install only one device at a time Installing a New Device When you attach a new device to the system unit you will see a message pop up near the Action Center icon.

If you click on Click here for status the following dialog box opens Installing a New Device However if the driver software installation fails the status dialog box will open showing which driver was not installed

Installing a New Device The actions center will open and give you options for correcting the driver problem. Using Device Manager Device Manager (devmgmt.msc) Primary Windows tool for managing hardware Using Device Manager you can: Disable or enable a device Update its drivers Uninstall a device Undo a driver update

To access Device Manger: Click Start, right-click Computer, select Properties on the shortcut menu, Click Device Manager on the System window and respond to UAC box Using Device Manager Ways to use Device Manager to solve problems: Look for error messages offered by Device Manager Update the drivers or roll back (undo) a driver update Try uninstalling and reinstalling the device If Windows is not able to locate new drivers for a

device Download latest driver file from manufacturers site Use 64-bit drivers for 64-bit OS and 32-bit drivers for 32-bit OS A few devices have firmware on the device that can be flashed A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 11 Using Device Manager

To access Device Manager: Click Start right-click Computer select Properties on the shortcut menu Click Device Manager on the System window If prompted respond to UAC box Or type Devmgmt.msc in the Search box and press enter. Either method will open the Device Manager. Device Manager is also part of the computer management console. The Device Manager Window

Double click on the specific device to open Properties dialog box. The Device Manager Window Additional Properties that can be viewed Data transmission speeds for various port types and wireless connections found on page 244 in book.

Converting meters to feet 2 meters = 6ft 6in A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 3 meters = 9ft 10in 100 meters = 328 ft 15 USB Connections The USB Implementers Forum, Inc. uses the following symbols

SuperSpeed, Hi-Speed, and Original USB logos appear on products certified by the USB forum USB forum is found at www.usb.org A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 16 USB Connections As many as 127 USB devices can be daisy chained together USB uses serial transmissions and devices are hotswappable (plug and unplug without powering

down) A USB cable has four wires, two for power and two for communication A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 17 USB Cables A-Male to A-male A-Male to A-Female A-Male to B-Male

Mini-B to A-Male A-Male to Micro-A A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 18 USB Cables USB 3.0 A-Male to USB 3.0 B-Male USB 3.0 A-Male to USB 3.0 Micro-B cable

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 19 FireWire (IEEE 1394) Connections Hardly used in new devices Uses serial transmissions and devices are hot- swappable FireWire 800 allows for up to 63 devices and FireWire 400 allows for up to 16 devices to be daisy chained together

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 20 FireWire (IEEE 1394) Connections FireWire 400 Firewire 400 mini FireWire 800 uses a 9- pin rectangular connector

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 21 Speed Comparison USB vs Firewire USB 1.1 = 12 Mbit/s Firewire 400 = 400 Mbit/s USB 2.0 = 480 Mbit/s FireWire 800 = 800 Mbit/s USB 3.0 = 5 Gbit/s eSATA = Up to 6 Gbit/s right now it depend on the internal SATA chip.

Speed is also dependent on the quality of the hardware. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 22 Infrared (IR) Connections Outdated wireless technology mostly replaced by Bluetooth Uses USB port and IR transceiver to receive

signals Most common use of IR is by remote controls A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 23 Installing I/O Peripheral Devices Simple input devices (mouse and keyboard) Can be controlled by the BIOS or have embedded drivers built into the OS Plug into a USB or older PS/2 port and OS should

automatically recognize it and install generic drivers For keyboards with special features: Install drivers that came with the keyboard A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 24 Installing I/O Peripheral Devices General procedures to install any peripheral device: 1. Read the manufacturers directions

2. Make sure the drivers are written for the proper OS 3. Make sure the motherboard port you are using is enabled 4. Install drivers or plug in the device 5. Install the application software to use the device Use Device Manager to uninstall, disable, or enable most devices USB devices are managed through Control Panel A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 25

Barcode Readers Scans barcodes on products Used to maintain inventory or at point of sale (POS) Several interface methods Wireless connection, serial port, USB port, keyboard port A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 26 Types of Bar Codes

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 27 Bar Codes Readers A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 28 Biometric Devices Biometric Devices - inputs a persons biological

data Additional authentication to control access to sensitive data Fingerprint reader types may: Look like a mouse Use wireless or USB connection Be embedded on side of keyboard, flash drive, laptop and now smart phones. Read documentation to know if you should install drivers before plugging in device

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 29 Biometric Devices Other types of biometric devices DNA Matching Ear Eyes - Iris Recognition Eyes - Retina Recognition Face Recognition Fingerprint Recognition Finger Geometry Recognition

Gait Hand Geometry Recognition Odor Signature Recognition Typing Recognition Vein Recognition Voice / Speaker Recognition A+Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

30 Digital Cameras and Camcorders Two ways to transfer images to PC Connect camera to the PC using a cable Install the memory card in the PC Webcams

Embedded on most laptops Can be installed using a USB port or other port on PC desktops Comes with built-in microphone Graphics Tablets Also called digitizing tablet

Likely to connect by a USB port Comes with stylus that works like a pencil Install the same way as other USB devices A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 33 MIDI Devices MIDI (Musical instrument digital interface) set of

standards used to represent music in digital form MIDI standards are used to connect musical equipment such as musical keyboards and mixers, these also can be connected to computers. Also can connect musical instruments to computers using software for MIDI conversion. Most sound cards can play MIDI files A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 34

MIDI Devices MIDI port is a 5-pin DIN port that looks like PS/2 keyboard port (only larger) Way to connect a musical instrument to PC MIDI to MIDI, MIDI to USB, USB to USB, and

USB to MIDI A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 35 Touch Screens Input device that uses a monitor or LCD panel as the backdrop for input options Some laptops and monitors for desktops have built-in touch screens Can be installed as an add-on

For most installations, install drivers before connecting by way of a USB port Use management software that came with the device to control and calibrate Windows 7 and 8 has native support software for touch screens. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 36 Touch Screens A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

37 KVM Switches Keyboard, Video, and Mouse (KVM) switch allows the use of one keyboard, mouse, and monitor for multiple computers Useful in a server room or testing lab Does not require device drivers, just plug in cables

form each computer to the device Switch between computers by using a hot key on the keyboard, buttons on KVM switch, or a wired remote A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 38 Installing and Configuring Adapter Cards When preparing to install a adapter card: Verify card fits an empty expansion slot

Verify device drivers for the OS are available Back up important data not already backed up Create a restore point. Know your starting point Installing and Configuring Adapter Cards General directions to install an video adapter card are found starting on page 261 in the book. On page 265 are issues you may run into when you install a video card. Other adapter cards follow the same basic procedure.

Types of Adapter Cards The following list of cards is condensed from the Web site CompTIA A+ Exam Prep: Adapter Cards and Their Functions. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 41 Types of Adapter Cards

Video Card Multimedia cards Sound TV Tuner Video Capture I/O cards USB SCSI Parallel Communications NIC Modem

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 42 Supporting the Video Subsystem Monitor: primary output device of a computer Two necessary components for video output: Monitor Video card (also called video adapter or graphics card) or video port on motherboard A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

43 Types of Monitors CRT (cathode-ray tube) first used in television sets Largely obsolete Types of Monitors LCD (liquid crystal display) - also called flat panel First used in laptops

How it works Types of Monitors Back light in LCD monitors CCFLD (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) Types of Monitors LED (light-emitting diode) backlighting is used to

light the LCD panel Types of Monitors CFFL Size Cost Power Brightness Lifespan Thicker and heavier Cheaper and more cost

effective LED Thinner and lighter More expensive, but are becoming more affordable as more laptop manufacturers are using LED backlights Higher power consumption Lower power consumption and heat generation and heat generation

Lower brightness Generally higher brightness Shorter lifespan Last longer than CCFL's Types of Monitors Types of monitors (contd) Plasma monitor provides high contrast with better color than LCD monitors Expensive and heavy Types of Monitors Projector used to shine a light that projects a

transparent image onto a large screen Types of Monitors OLED (organic light-emitting Diode) monitor uses a thin LED layer or film between two grids of electrodes Does not use backlighting BUILD YOUR OWN Buying A Hard Drive

Monitor Features Screen size Diagonal length of the screen surface in inches. Refresh rate The refresh rate, also called the response time, is the time it takes for a monitor to build one screen, measured in ms (milliseconds) or Hz( hertz). The lower the better. A monitor with a 12-ms response time can build 83 frames per second, and a 16-ms monitor can build 63 frames per second.

Monitor Features Pixel pitch A pixel is a spot or dot on the screen that can be addressed by software. The pixel pitch is the distance between adjacent pixels on the screen. An example of a pixel pitch is .283mm. The smaller the number, the better. Monitor Features Resolution The resolution is the number of spots or pixels on a

screen that can be addressed by software. Values can range from 640 X 480 up to 1920 X 1200 for high-end monitors. Popular resolutions are 1920 X 1080 and 1366 X 768. Native resolution The native resolution is the number of pixels built into the LCD monitor. Using the native resolution usually gives the highestquality image. Monitor Features Contrast ratio

The contrast between true black and true white on the screen. The higher the contrast ratio the better. 1000:1 is better than 700:1. An advertised dynamic contrast ratio is much higher than the contrast ratio, but not a true measurement of contrast. Dynamic contrast adjusts the backlighting to give the effect of an overall brighter or darker image. For example

the contrast ratio is 1000:1, and the dynamic ratio is 20,000,000:1 . When comparing quality of monitors, pay attention to the contrast ratio, more so than the dynamic ratio. Monitor Features Viewing angle The angle of view when a monitor becomes difcult to see. A viewing angle of 170 degrees is better than 140 degrees. Backlighting or brightness

Brightness is measured in cd/m2 (candela per square meter), which is the same as lumens/m2 (lumens per square meter). In addition, the best LED backlighting for viewing photography is class IPS (in-plane switching), which provides the most accurate color. Monitor Features Other features LCD monitors can also provide antiglare surface tilt screens microphone input

Speakers USB portsConnectors Options for connectors are VGA, DVI-I, DVI-D, HDMI, DisplayPort, and Thunderbolt. Some monitors offer more than one connector. Some monitors are also touch screens, so they can be used with a stylus or nger touch. Monitor Features Video Cards Graphic adapters, graphics cards, display cards

Most motherboards have integrated video controller Can use AGP, PCI, PCI Express motherboard slot Video Ports VGA: red, green, blue video using VGA port (DB-15) Composite video: also called RGB port Red, green, and blue are

mixed together in the same signal Does not produce as sharp an image as VGA or S-Video Video Ports S-Video (Super-Video): used by some TVs and video equipment Connector is called a

MiniDin-6 and looks like PS/2 Component video: has been split into different components and carried as separate signals Video Ports DVI (Digital Visual Interface) - variations of DVI: DVI-D only transmits digital data

DVI-I supports analog and digital signals DVI-A only transmits analog data Single Link or Dual Link Dual link doubles the power of the signal and can support higher screen resolutions Most DVD-D and DVI-I ports are dual link A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 63 Video Ports Display Port: Can transmit digital and

audio data Uses data packet transmissions similar to Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express Expected to replace VGA, DVI, and HDMI on desktop and laptop computers A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

64 Video Ports HDMI: transmits both digital video and audio Allows for several types of HDMI connectors (best known is Type A 19- pin) Mini

Micro Only works on DVI-D ports (does not transmit analog) A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 65 Changing Monitor Settings Monitor buttons

Can adjust horizontal and vertical position of the screen Can change the brightness and contrast settings On laptops, function keys are usually used instead of buttons Windows utilities can also be used to change monitor settings Video Card Processor and Memory Graphics processing unit (GPU) also called visual processing unit

(VPU) Uses graphics RAM installed on the card Most video cards use: DDR2, DDR3, Graphics DDR3 (GDDR3), GDDR4, GDDR5 memory Some video cards have as much as 2 GB of graphics memory

Windows 7 (Vista) Windows7/Vista Aero requirements 128 MB video memory, DirectX 9 or higher, Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) DirectX developmental tool developers can use to write multimedia applications DirectX diagnostics program: dxdiag.exe Displays information about hardware Helps diagnose problems with DirectX A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition

68 Windows 7 (Vista) A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 69 Windows 7 (Vista) Graphics memory can be embedded on video card, system

memory, or a combination of both Use Advanced settings under Adjust Screen Resolution to see available video memory A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 70 Supporting Storage Devices Storage devices to support might include:

Optical discs USB flash drives Memory cards A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 71 File System Used by Storage Devices File system used to manage data stored on a device Overall structure the OS uses to name, store, and

organize files on a drive In the book it states that In Windows, each storage device is assigned a driver letter This is only true if the hard drive or SSD only has one partition. If multiple partitions exist on a HDD or SSD then each partition will have its own Drive Letter. A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 72

File System Used by Storage Devices A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 73 File System Used by Storage Devices A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 74 File System Used by Storage Devices

Formatting installing a new file system on a device Types of file systems: NTFS exFAT FAT32 FAT A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 75

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 76 Standards Used by Optical Drives CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs (BD) use similar laser technologies A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 77

Standards Used by Optical Drives Tiny lands and pits on surface represent bits read by a laser beam A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 78 Standards Used by Optical Drives Data can be written to: One side of a CD One or both sides of a DVD or Blu-ray disc

DVD or Blu-ray disc can hold two layers on each side A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 79 Standards Used by Optical Drives A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 80

Standards Used by Optical Drives A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 81 Standards Used by Optical Drives CD drives use CDFS (Compact Disc File System) DVD and Blue-ray drives use UDF (Universal Disk Format) file system Internal optical drive interfaces with motherboard

via an IDE or SATA connection External might use eSATA, FireWire, or USB A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 82 Installing An Optical Drive Internal optical drives use a SATA, IDE, or SCSI interface An optical drive that shares a cable with a hard drive can slow down the hard drives performance

If hard drive and optical drive must share a cable, make the hard drive the master On motherboards that have one SATA connection and one IDE connection, use SATA connections for all hard drives Optical drives are usually installed in top bay of case A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 83

Installing An Optical Drive Windows 7/Vista/XP supports optical drives using its own embedded drivers Windows should recognize drive after Found New Hardware Wizard completes A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 84 Solid-State Storage

Solid-state storage includes: SSD hard drives (already covered) USB flash drives Memory cards A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 85 Solid-State Storage USB flash drives go by many names: Flash pen drive, jump drive, thumb drive, and key drive File sustems use

FAT (small capacity drives) exFAT (large capacity drives) Windows 7/Vista/XP has embedded drivers to support flash drives A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 86 Solid-State Storage Memory cards might be used in:

Digital cameras, tablets, cell phones, MP3 players, digital camcorders, etc SD (Secure Digital) Association is responsible for standards for Secure Digital Cards: Most used of all types of memory cards 1.x (regular SD) 2.x (SD High Capacity or SDHC) 3.x (SD eXtended Capacity or SDXC) A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 87

SD Cards Full Sized SD SD 1.x Holds up to 2 GB SD High Capacity SD 2.x Holds 4 GB to 32 GB SD eXtended

Capacity SD 3.x Holds 32 GB to 2 TB MiniSD MicroSD SD Cards SDHC and SDXC slots are backward compatible with SD cards

Cannot use: SDHC card in an SD slot SDXC card in an SDHC or SD slot SD and SDHC cards use FAT file system SDXC cards use exFAT file system A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 89 Other Flash Memory Card Types The Memory Stick is used

in Sony cameras and camcorders. The Sony Memory Stick PRO Duo is about half the size of the Memory Stick PRO It is faster and has a higher storage capacity. You can use an adapter to insert the Memory Stick PRO Duo in a regular Memory Stick slot.

A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition 90 Other Flash Memory Card Types CompactFlash (CF) cards come in two types Type I (CFI) Type II (CFII). Type II cards are slightly thicker. CFI

cards will t a Type II slot but CFII cards will not t a Type I slot. The CF standard allows for sizes up to 137 GB, although current sizes range up to 32 GB. UDMA CompactFlash cards are faster than other CompactFlash cards. UDMA (Ultra Direct Memory Access) transfers data from the device to memory without involving the CPU. Used mostly in high end digital cameras

Other Flash Memory Card Types MultiMedia Card (MMC) looks like an SD card, but the technology is different and they are not interchangeable. Generally, SD cards are faster than MMC cards. Other Flash Memory Card Types The xD-Picture Card

has a compact design (about the size of a postage stamp), and currently holds up to 8 GB of data. You can use an adapter to insert this card into a PC Card slot on a notebook computer or a CF slot on a digital camera.

Summary Adding new devices to a computer require installing hardware and software Use Device Manager to manage and troubleshoot hardware Popular I/O ports on a motherboard include eSATA, FireWire, and USB Wireless connections can use Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g/ n, Bluetooth, and Infrared standards USB connectors include A-Male, B-Male, Mini-B, Micro-B, Micro-A, USB 3.0 B-Male, USB 3.0 Micro-B

Summary When installing devices, use 32-bit drivers for a 32-bit OS and 64-bit drivers for a 64-bit OS Biometric input devices collect biological data in order to authenticate access to a system Generally, Windows detects new adapter cards and installs appropriate drivers Types of monitors include CRT, LCD, plasma, projector, and OLED monitor Video ports might be VGA, DVI-I, DVI-D, DVI-A, composite video, S-Video, component video,

DisplayPort, HDMI, and HDMI mini ports Summary File systems a storage device might use in Windows include NTFS, exFAT, and FAT Optical discs can be recordable (CD-R) or rewritable (DVD-RW) Types of flash memory standards include SD, MiniSD, MicroSD, SDHC, MiniSDHC, MicroSDHC, SDXC, MicroSDXC Other memory cards include Memory Stick PRO Duo, Memory Stick PRO, Memory Stick Micro

M2, CompactFlash I and II, and xD-Picture Card

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