Chapter #, Title

Chapter #, Title

Chapter 3 Using Classes and Objects Java Software Solutions Foundations of Program Design 9th Edition John Lewis William Loftus Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Using Classes and Objects We can create more interesting programs using predefined classes and related objects Chapter 3 focuses on:

object creation and object references the String class and its methods the Java API class library the Random and Math classes formatting output enumerated types wrapper classes JavaFX graphics API ITEC 2610 shape classes ITEC 2610

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Introduction to JavaFX Shapes and Color Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating Objects A variable holds either a primitive value or a reference to an object

A class name can be used as a type to declare an object reference variable String title; No object is created with this declaration An object reference variable holds the address of an object The object itself must be created separately Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating Objects Generally, we use the new operator to create an object Creating an object is called instantiation An object is an instance of a particular class title = new String("Java Software Solutions"); This calls the String constructor, which is

a special method that sets up the object Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Invoking Methods We've seen that once an object has been instantiated, we can use the dot operator to invoke its methods numChars = title.length() A method may return a value, which can be used in an assignment or expression A method invocation can be thought of as asking an object to perform a service Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. References

Note that a primitive variable contains the value itself, but an object variable contains the address of the object An object reference can be thought of as a pointer to the location of the object Rather than dealing with arbitrary addresses, we often depict a reference graphically num1 name1 38 "Steve Jobs" Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Assignment Revisited The act of assignment takes a copy of a value and stores it in a variable

For primitive types: Before: num1 38 num2 96 num1 38 num2

38 num2 = num1; After: Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Reference Assignment For object references, assignment copies the address: Before: name1 "Steve Jobs"

name2 "Steve Wozniak" name1 "Steve Jobs" name2 = name1; After: name2 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Aliases

Two or more references that refer to the same object are called aliases of each other That creates an interesting situation: one object can be accessed using multiple reference variables Aliases can be useful, but should be managed carefully Changing an object through one reference changes it for all of its aliases, because there is really only one object Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Garbage Collection When an object no longer has any valid references to it, it can no longer be accessed by the program The object is useless, and therefore is called garbage

Java performs automatic garbage collection periodically, returning an object's memory to the system for future use In other languages, the programmer is responsible for performing garbage collection Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Introduction to JavaFX Shapes and Color

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The String Class Because strings are so common, we don't have to use the new operator to create a String object title = "Java Software Solutions"; This is special syntax that works only for strings Each string literal (enclosed in double quotes) represents a String object Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. String Methods Once a String object has been created, neither its value nor its length can be changed Therefore we say that an object of the String

class is immutable However, several methods of the String class return new String objects that are modified versions of the original Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. String Indexes It is occasionally helpful to refer to a particular character within a string This can be done by specifying the character's numeric index The indexes begin at zero in each string In the string "Hello", the character 'H' is at index 0 and the 'o' is at index 4 See StringMutation.java

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // StringMutation.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of the String class and its methods. //******************************************************************** public class StringMutation { //----------------------------------------------------------------// Prints a string and various mutations of it. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { String phrase = "Change is inevitable"; String mutation1, mutation2, mutation3, mutation4; System.out.println("Original string: \"" + phrase + "\""); System.out.println("Length of string: " + phrase.length());

mutation1 mutation2 mutation3 mutation4 = = = = phrase.concat(", except from vending machines."); mutation1.toUpperCase(); mutation2.replace('E', 'X'); mutation3.substring(3, 30); continued

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued // Print each mutated string System.out.println("Mutation System.out.println("Mutation System.out.println("Mutation System.out.println("Mutation #1: #2: #3: #4: " " "

" + + + + mutation1); mutation2); mutation3); mutation4); System.out.println("Mutated length: " + mutation4.length()); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Output Original string: "Change is inevitable" Length of string: 20 continued Mutation #1: Change is inevitable, except from vending machines. Mutation IS INEVITABLE, EXCEPT FROM VENDING MACHINES. // #2: PrintCHANGE each mutated string System.out.println("Mutation #1: XXCXPT " + mutation1);

Mutation #3: CHANGX IS INXVITABLX, FROM VXNDING MACHINXS. System.out.println("Mutation " + mutation2); Mutation #4: NGX IS INXVITABLX, #2: XXCXPT F #3: " + mutation3); MutatedSystem.out.println("Mutation length: 27 System.out.println("Mutation #4: " + mutation4); System.out.println("Mutated length: " + mutation4.length()); } }

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check What output is produced by the following? String str = "Space, the final frontier."; System.out.println(str.length()); System.out.println(str.substring(7)); System.out.println(str.toUpperCase()); System.out.println(str.length()); Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check What output is produced by the following? String str = "Space, the final frontier."; System.out.println(str.length());

System.out.println(str.substring(7)); System.out.println(str.toUpperCase()); System.out.println(str.length()); 26 the final frontier. SPACE, THE FINAL FRONTIER. 26 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Introduction to JavaFX

Shapes and Color Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Class Libraries A class library is a collection of classes that we can use when developing programs The Java standard class library is part of any Java development environment Its classes are not part of the Java language per se, but we rely on them heavily Various classes we've already used (System , Scanner, String) are part of the Java standard class library Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Java API

The Java class library is sometimes referred to as the Java API API stands for Application Programming Interface Clusters of related classes are sometimes referred to as specific APIs: The JavaFX API The Database API Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Java API Get comfortable using the online Java API documentation Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Packages

For purposes of accessing them, classes in the Java API are organized into packages These often overlap with specific APIs Examples: Package Purpose java.lang General support java.util Utilities java.net Network communication javafx.scene.shape Graphical shapes javafx.scene.control GUI controls

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The import Declaration When you want to use a class from a package, you could use its fully qualified name java.util.Scanner Or you can import the class, and then use just the class name import java.util.Scanner; To import all classes in a particular package, you can use the * wildcard character import java.util.*; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

The import Declaration All classes of the java.lang package are imported automatically into all programs It's as if all programs contain the following line: import java.lang.*; That's why we didn't have to import the System or String classes explicitly in earlier programs The Scanner class, on the other hand, is part of the java.util package, and therefore must be imported Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Random Class The Random class is part of the java.util package It provides methods that generate pseudorandom numbers

A Random object performs complicated calculations based on a seed value to produce a stream of seemingly random values See RandomNumbers.java Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // RandomNumbers.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the creation of pseudo-random numbers using the // Random class. //******************************************************************** import java.util.Random; public class RandomNumbers {

//----------------------------------------------------------------// Generates random numbers in various ranges. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { Random generator = new Random(); int num1; float num2; num1 = generator.nextInt(); System.out.println("A random integer: " + num1); num1 = generator.nextInt(10); System.out.println("From 0 to 9: " + num1); continued Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued num1 = generator.nextInt(10) + 1; System.out.println("From 1 to 10: " + num1); num1 = generator.nextInt(15) + 20;

System.out.println("From 20 to 34: " + num1); num1 = generator.nextInt(20) - 10; System.out.println("From -10 to 9: " + num1); num2 = generator.nextFloat(); System.out.println("A random float (between 0-1): " + num2); num2 = generator.nextFloat() * 6; // 0.0 to 5.999999 num1 = (int)num2 + 1; System.out.println("From 1 to 6: " + num1); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued Sample Run A random integer: 672981683

num1 = generator.nextInt(10) + 1; From 0 to 9:("From 0 System.out.println 1 to 10: " + num1); From 1 to 10: 3 20 to 34: 30 num1 =From generator.nextInt(15) + 20; System.out.println From -10 to ("From 9: -4 20 to 34: " + num1); A random float (between 0-1): 0.18538326 num1 =From

generator.nextInt(20) - 10; 1 to 6: 3 System.out.println ("From -10 to 9: " + num1); num2 = generator.nextFloat(); System.out.println("A random float (between 0-1): " + num2); num2 = generator.nextFloat() * 6; // 0.0 to 5.999999 num1 = (int)num2 + 1; System.out.println("From 1 to 6: " + num1); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check Given a Random object named gen, what range of

values are produced by the following expressions? gen.nextInt(25) gen.nextInt(6) + 1 gen.nextInt(100) + 10 gen.nextInt(50) + 100 gen.nextInt(10) 5 gen.nextInt(22) + 12 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check Given a Random object named gen, what range of values are produced by the following expressions? gen.nextInt(25) Range 0 to 24

gen.nextInt(6) + 1 1 to 6 gen.nextInt(100) + 10 10 to 109 gen.nextInt(50) + 100 100 to 149 gen.nextInt(10) 5 -5 to 4

gen.nextInt(22) + 12 12 to 33 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check Write an expression that produces a random integer in the following ranges: Range 0 to 12 1 to 20 15 to 20 -10 to 0 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Quick Check Write an expression that produces a random integer in the following ranges: Range 0 to 12 gen.nextInt(13) 1 to 20 gen.nextInt(20) + 1 15 to 20 gen.nextInt(6) + 15 -10 to 0

gen.nextInt(11) 10 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. The Math Class The Math class is part of the java.lang package The Math class contains methods that perform various mathematical functions These include: absolute value square root exponentiation trigonometric functions Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Math Class The methods of the Math class are static methods (also called class methods) Static methods are invoked through the class name no object of the Math class is needed value = Math.cos(90) + Math.sqrt(delta); We discuss static methods further in Chapter 7 See Quadratic.java Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // Quadratic.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of the Math class to perform a calculation

// based on user input. //******************************************************************** import java.util.Scanner; public class Quadratic { //----------------------------------------------------------------// Determines the roots of a quadratic equation. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { int a, b, c; // ax^2 + bx + c double discriminant, root1, root2; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter the coefficient of x squared: "); a = scan.nextInt(); continued Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued

System.out.print("Enter the coefficient of x: "); b = scan.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the constant: "); c = scan.nextInt(); // Use the quadratic formula to compute the roots. // Assumes a positive discriminant. discriminant = Math.pow(b, 2) - (4 * a * c); root1 = ((-1 * b) + Math.sqrt(discriminant)) / (2 * a); root2 = ((-1 * b) - Math.sqrt(discriminant)) / (2 * a); System.out.println("Root #1: " + root1); System.out.println("Root #2: " + root2); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued

Sample Run Enter the coefficient of x squared: 3 System.out.print("Enter the coefficient of x: "); Enter the coefficient of x: 8 b = scan.nextInt(); Enter the constant: 4 Root #1: -0.6666666666666666 System.out.print("Enter the constant: "); c = scan.nextInt(); Root #2: -2.0 // Use the quadratic formula to compute the roots. // Assumes a positive discriminant.

discriminant = Math.pow(b, 2) - (4 * a * c); root1 = ((-1 * b) + Math.sqrt(discriminant)) / (2 * a); root2 = ((-1 * b) - Math.sqrt(discriminant)) / (2 * a); System.out.println("Root #1: " + root1); System.out.println("Root #2: " + root2); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes

Introduction to JavaFX Shapes and Color Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Formatting Output It is often necessary to format output values in certain ways so that they can be presented properly The Java standard class library contains classes that provide formatting capabilities The NumberFormat class allows you to format values as currency or percentages The DecimalFormat class allows you to format values based on a pattern Both are part of the java.text package Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Formatting Output The NumberFormat class has static methods that return a formatter object getCurrencyInstance() getPercentInstance() Each formatter object has a method called format that returns a string with the specified information in the appropriate format See Purchase.java Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // Purchase.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of the NumberFormat class to format output. //********************************************************************

import java.util.Scanner; import java.text.NumberFormat; public class Purchase { //----------------------------------------------------------------// Calculates the final price of a purchased item using values // entered by the user. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { final double TAX_RATE = 0.06; // 6% sales tax int quantity; double subtotal, tax, totalCost, unitPrice; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); continued Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued NumberFormat fmt1 = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance();

NumberFormat fmt2 = NumberFormat.getPercentInstance(); System.out.print("Enter the quantity: "); quantity = scan.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the unit price: "); unitPrice = scan.nextDouble(); subtotal = quantity * unitPrice; tax = subtotal * TAX_RATE; totalCost = subtotal + tax; // Print output with appropriate formatting System.out.println("Subtotal: " + fmt1.format(subtotal)); System.out.println("Tax: " + fmt1.format(tax) + " at " + fmt2.format(TAX_RATE)); System.out.println("Total: " + fmt1.format(totalCost)); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

continued Sample Run Enter the quantity: 5 NumberFormat fmt1 = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(); Enter the unit price: 3.87 NumberFormat fmt2 = NumberFormat.getPercentInstance(); Subtotal: $19.35 Tax: $1.16 at 6% System.out.print("Enter the quantity: "); Total: $20.51

quantity = scan.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the unit price: "); unitPrice = scan.nextDouble(); subtotal = quantity * unitPrice; tax = subtotal * TAX_RATE; totalCost = subtotal + tax; // Print output with appropriate formatting System.out.println("Subtotal: " + fmt1.format(subtotal)); System.out.println("Tax: " + fmt1.format(tax) + " at " + fmt2.format(TAX_RATE)); System.out.println("Total: " + fmt1.format(totalCost)); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Formatting Output The DecimalFormat class can be used to format a floating point value in various ways For example, you can specify that the number should be truncated to three decimal places The constructor of the DecimalFormat class takes a string that represents a pattern for the formatted number See CircleStats.java Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // CircleStats.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the formatting of decimal values using the

// DecimalFormat class. //******************************************************************** import java.util.Scanner; import java.text.DecimalFormat; public class CircleStats { //----------------------------------------------------------------// Calculates the area and circumference of a circle given its // radius. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { int radius; double area, circumference; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); continued Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

continued System.out.print("Enter the circle's radius: "); radius = scan.nextInt(); area = Math.PI * Math.pow(radius, 2); circumference = 2 * Math.PI * radius; // Round the output to three decimal places DecimalFormat fmt = new DecimalFormat("0.###"); System.out.println("The circle's area: " + fmt.format(area)); System.out.println("The circle's circumference: " + fmt.format(circumference)); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Sample Run continued

Enter the circle's radius: 5 The circle'sthe area: 78.54 System.out.print("Enter circle's radius: "); radius = scan.nextInt(); The circle's circumference: 31.416 area = Math.PI * Math.pow(radius, 2); circumference = 2 * Math.PI * radius; // Round the output to three decimal places DecimalFormat fmt = new DecimalFormat("0.###"); System.out.println("The circle's area: " + fmt.format(area)); System.out.println("The circle's circumference: " + fmt.format(circumference));

} } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Introduction to JavaFX Shapes and Color Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Enumerated Types Java allows you to define an enumerated type, which can then be used to declare variables An enumerated type declaration lists all possible values for a variable of that type The values are identifiers of your own choosing The following declaration creates an enumerated type called Season enum Season {winter, spring, summer, fall}; Any number of values can be listed Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Enumerated Types Once a type is defined, a variable of that type can be declared:

Season time; And it can be assigned a value: time = Season.fall; The values are referenced through the name of the type Enumerated types are type-safe you cannot assign any value other than those listed Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Ordinal Values Internally, each value of an enumerated type is stored as an integer, called its ordinal value The first value in an enumerated type has an ordinal value of zero, the second one, and so on However, you cannot assign a numeric value to an enumerated type, even if it corresponds to a valid

ordinal value Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Enumerated Types The declaration of an enumerated type is a special type of class, and each variable of that type is an object The ordinal method returns the ordinal value of the object The name method returns the name of the identifier corresponding to the object's value See IceCream.java Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. //********************************************************************

// IceCream.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of enumerated types. //******************************************************************** public class IceCream { enum Flavor {vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, fudgeRipple, coffee, rockyRoad, mintChocolateChip, cookieDough} //----------------------------------------------------------------// Creates and uses variables of the Flavor type. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { Flavor cone1, cone2, cone3; cone1 = Flavor.rockyRoad; cone2 = Flavor.chocolate; System.out.println("cone1 value: " + cone1); System.out.println("cone1 ordinal: " + cone1.ordinal());

System.out.println("cone1 name: " + cone1.name()); continued Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued System.out.println(); System.out.println("cone2 value: " + cone2); System.out.println("cone2 ordinal: " + cone2.ordinal()); System.out.println("cone2 name: " + cone2.name()); cone3 = cone1; System.out.println(); System.out.println("cone3 value: " + cone3); System.out.println("cone3 ordinal: " + cone3.ordinal()); System.out.println("cone3 name: " + cone3.name()); } }

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. continued Output cone1 value: rockyRoad System.out.println(); cone1 ordinal: 5 System.out.println("cone2 value: " + cone2); cone1 name: rockyRoad System.out.println("cone2 ordinal: " + cone2.ordinal()); cone2 value: chocolate

System.out.println("cone2 name: " + cone2.name()); cone2 ordinal: 1 cone3 = cone1; cone2 name: chocolate cone3 value: rockyRoad System.out.println(); cone3 ordinal: 5 System.out.println("cone3 value: " + cone3); cone3 name: rockyRoad System.out.println("cone3 ordinal: " + cone3.ordinal()); System.out.println("cone3 name: " + cone3.name()); } } Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Introduction to JavaFX Shapes and Color Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Wrapper Classes The java.lang package contains wrapper classes that correspond to each primitive type: Primitive Type

byte short int long float double char boolean Wrapper Class Byte Short Integer Long Float Double Character

Boolean Wrapper Classes The following declaration creates an Integer object which represents the integer 40 as an object Integer age = new Integer(40); An object of a wrapper class can be used in any situation where a primitive value will not suffice For example, some objects serve as containers of other objects Primitive values could not be stored in such containers, but wrapper objects could be Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Wrapper Classes Wrapper classes also contain static methods that

help manage the associated type For example, the Integer class contains a method to convert an integer stored in a String to an int value: num = Integer.parseInt(str); They often contain useful constants as well For example, the Integer class contains MIN_VALUE and MAX_VALUE which hold the smallest and largest int values Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Autoboxing Autoboxing is the automatic conversion of a primitive value to a corresponding wrapper object: Integer obj; int num = 42; obj = num;

The assignment creates the appropriate Integer object The reverse conversion (called unboxing) also occurs automatically as needed Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check Are the following assignments valid? Explain. Double value = 15.75; Character ch = new Character('T'); char myChar = ch; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check

Are the following assignments valid? Explain. Double value = 15.75; Yes. The double literal is autoboxed into a Double object. Character ch = new Character('T'); char myChar = ch; Yes, the char in the object is unboxed before the assignment. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

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