Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Presidential Leadership Chapter 9 Section 1 Presidential Powers Constitutional Powers Need for a strong Executive The founders recognized the need for a strong executive. A strong executive was needed to overcome the

weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Also needed to hold the legislative branch in check. Presidential Powers in Article II Grants the president broad but vaguely described powers. He heads the executive branch, is commander in chief, conducts foreign policy, and has judicial powers. Informal Sources of Power

Personal Exercise of Power Presidents have added to their powers by their actions: Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territories despite the Constitution not granting that right to the President. Theodore Roosevelt declared his intent to do anything the needs of the nation required. Informal Sources of Power Immediate Needs of the Nation During national crises, some presidents greatly

expanded the powers of the presidency. Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and jailed opponents of the Union without trials. Franklin Roosevelt used the presidency to expand the role of the federal government. George W. Bush was given sweeping new authority from Congress to fight terrorism. Informal Sources of Power Mandate of the People Modern presidents claim their ideas and policies

represent a mandate from the people, and they use all forms of mass media to build support for their ideas Reagan was called the Great Communicator for his ability to deliver his message directly to the people through television Limits on Presidential Powers Limitation by Congress The Constitution gives Congress the power to limit presidential authority by overriding a veto or impeaching and

removing the president from office for clear abuse of power. Limitation by the Federal Courts Federal courts also limit the presidents power. Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Courts right to review legislative action. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer ruled that there is no statute which authorized the president to take control of a private business. Limits on Presidential Powers

Limitation by Bureaucracy The federal bureaucracy sometimes limits presidential power by obstructing programs or failing to carry them out properly. This happens often when key bureaucrats work closely with congressional leaders rather than the president. Limitation by Public Opinion Public opinion can limit the presidents actions. Clintons health care program was derailed before it

could be made into law because the people spoke out against it. Chapter 9 Section 2 Roles of the President Head of State Represents the nation at ceremonial functions. Serves as host to visiting kings, queens, and heads of government.

Throws out the first pitch at MLB games. The president is considered more then a politician, but rather a symbol of the entire United States. Chief Executive Heads the 2 million person executive branch.

Influences how laws are executed through executive orders, presidential appointments, removal of appointed officials, and impoundment. Executive Order: a rule issued by the president that has the force of law. Impoundment: the presidents refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program Chief Executive

Grants pardons, reprieves, or amnesty Reprieve: grants a postponement of legal punishment Pardon: a release from legal punishment Amnesty: a group pardon to people for an offense against the government Chief Legislator Legislative Programs The president proposes legislation to Congress, usually in the State of the Union Address. The president must work harder for congressional

support when Congress is controlled by the opposition party. Tools of Presidential Lawmaking The president may use political favors to gain congressional support The president has the threat of the veto to influence Congress. Economic Planner

The president has gained important economic powers since the New Deal. Promotes high employment, production, and purchasing power. Required to prepare the federal budget each year. Party Leader

The president helps raise party funds and plan campaign strategies. The president uses political patronage to appoint party members to government jobs. Patronage: the practice of granting favors to reward party loyalty Chief Diplomat

The president directs foreign policy and overseas foreign affairs information agencies. The Power to make Treaties With Senate approval, presidents can make treaties, or formal agreements with foreign governments. Chief Diplomat

The Power to make Executive Agreements The president can make pacts with heads of foreign government. Theses agreements have the same legal status as treaties but do not require Senate approval. Recognition of Foreign Governments The president determines whether the government will acknowledge the legal existence of another government.

Commander in Chief The president shares, with Congress, the power to wage war. The president makes key military policy decisions. The president supports war efforts on the home

front during wars. The president may use the armed forces to end disorders or give aid in natural disasters. Chapter 9 Section 3 Styles of Leadership Increased Responsibilities

Modern presidents have provided strong leadership for the nation, even though the Founders expected Congress to lead the nation. Presidents provide leadership in introducing bold new ideas as well as responding to crises at home and abroad. Leadership Qualities and Skills

Presidents must know and understand the people of the United States. Presidents must be able to communicate effectively and to explain their policies clearly in order to inspire public support. Presidents must know when the time is right to introduce new policies or make key

decisions. Leadership Qualities and Skills Successful presidents must: 1. be flexible and open to new ideas; 2. be able to compromise; 3. have political courage and be willing to go against public opinion in matters they believe are vital to the nations interests. Presidential Isolation

The special treatment given to modern presidents risks isolating them from information and advice they should have to carry out their duties effectively. Presidents may discourage staffers from disagreeing with them or giving them unpleasant advice. Presidential Isolation

Access to the president often forces top staffers and advisers to flatter the president and provide only good news and favorable opinions. Top staffers control access to the president. Dealing with White House staff requires much

of the presidents time and makes it more difficult to keep in touch with the public. The Use of Executive Privilege To keep White House discussions and advice secret, presidents invoke executive privilege to avoid giving such information to Congress or the courts.

Modern presidents have claimed that executive privilege also protects their communications with other members of the executive branch. The Supreme Court has ruled that executive privilege is constitutionally based.

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