Chapter 8 Managing the Diverse Workforce

Chapter 8 Managing the Diverse Workforce

Chapter 8 Managing A New & Diverse Workforce Prepared by Joseph Mosca Monmouth University Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 1 Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Discuss the nature of diversity and distinguish between diversity management and equal employment opportunity. Identify and describe the major dimensions of diversity in organizations. Discuss the primary impact of diversity on organizations. Describe individual and organizational strategies and approaches to coping with diversity and discuss the multicultural organization. Discuss the basic issues in managing the knowledge function in organizations. Relate human resource management and social issues. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 2 Workforce Diversity Diversity exists in a group or organization when its members

differ from one another along one or more important dimensions. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 3 Diversity Management Versus Equal Employment Opportunity Equal employment opportunity means treating people fairly and equitably and taking actions that do not discriminate against people in protected classes on the basis of some illegal criterion. Diversity management places a much

heavier emphasis on recognizing and appreciating differences among people at work and attempting to provide accommodations for those differences to the extent that is feasible and possible. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 4 Identical Treatment Versus Equitable Treatment An employer who provides Christian holidays off should also be sensitive to the need to provide important religious holidays off for various employees of different beliefs and faiths. On average, men have greater muscle mass than do women and therefore lift heavier

weight. Since women bear children, they may need longer periods of time off after childbirth. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 5 Age Distributions The average age of the U.S. workforce is gradually increasing. Declining birth rates among post-baby-boom generations simultaneously account for smaller percentages of new entrants into the labor force. Due to limits on mandatory retirement, more and more people are working beyond the age at which they might have retired just a few years ago. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

8- 6 Dimensions of Diversity Gender: as more and more females have entered the workforce, organizations have subsequently experienced changes in the relative proportion of male and female employees. The glass ceiling describes a barrier that keeps many females from advancing to top management positions in many organizations. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 7

Disability Disabilities range from hearing impairments to missing fingers or limbs, blindness, or paralysis. Origin: if the disability is perceived as being avoidable (example, one injured while DUI), coworkers are likely to react more negatively. Aesthetic: disabilities that are more disfiguring are perceived more negatively. A third and critical dimension refers to the nature of the disability itself, and how it is revealed to and perceived by coworkers.

Not physically obvious disabilities such as back injuries are granted accommodation, but may raise resentment from coworkers. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 8 Diversity and Social Change Diversity in organizations both facilitates and is facilitated by social change in the environment. Another way that organizations affect social change is through the images they use to promote themselves and their products. Organizations that use diverse groups as representatives convey a message of their sensitivity toward diversity. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

8- 9 Diversity and Competitiveness There are 6 issues on how diversity can be the source of a competitive advantage: 1. Cost 2. Resource acquisition 3. Marketing 4. Creativity 5. Problem solving 6. Systems flexibility Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 10 The Bottom Line on Diversity Studies indicate:

Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Diversity leads to positive outcomes such as better firm performance. The key is that when a firm reaches true diversity, subgroup conflict dynamics disappear as everyone begins to view themselves as members of the same organization. 8- 11 Individual Strategies for Dealing with Diversity

Understanding: one must be clear on the nature and meaning of diversity. Empathy: in an organization, one should try to understand the perspectives of others. Tolerance: in an organization, one should be willing to tolerate cultural differences. Communication: it can only work if it is two-way.

Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 12 Toward the Multicultural Organization Basic Characteristics Pluralism Full structural integration Full integration of the informal network Absence No

of prejudice and discrimination gap in organizational identification Low levels of intergroup conflict Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 13 Organizational Learning Organizational learning is the process by which an organization learns from past mistakes and adapts to

its environment. Organizational memory is the collective, institutional record of past events. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8- 14

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