Chapter 7: Geography of Language

Chapter 7: Geography of Language

Photo Jon Malinowski. All rights reserved. Used with permission. Human Geography by Malinowski & Kaplan CHAPTER 7 LECTURE OUTLINE THE GEOGRAPHY OF LANGUAGE Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-1 Chapter 7 Modules

7ABasic Components of Language 7B Dialects, Accent, Linguae Francae, Pidgins, & Creoles 7C Language Families 7D Geography of English 7E Language Isolation and Language Extinction 7F Toponymy 7G Language Conflict Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-2 7A: Basic Components of Language Language

A system of communication using sounds, gestures, marks, and signs Phonemes The sounds in a language Early writing was often pictographic Such as cuneiform Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-3

The Rosetta Stone Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7A.2 7-4 7B: Dialects, etc. Dialect Variations of sounds & vocabulary in a language

Accent Differences in how a language sounds or is spoken Patois Generally refers to rural or provincial speech Vernacular Also refers to a local form of a language

Idiom A language peculiar to a certain group or region Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-5 7B: Lingua Franca Lingua Franca A common language used for cross-cultural communication or for trade Examples include Kiswalhili, Russian, French, Pidgin

A simplified language used by people who dont speak the same language Different from a lingua franca because it generally refers to a language that is nobodys native language Usually has a simplified vocabulary Creole A pidgin that is adopted by a group as its primary language Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-6 7C: Language Families Language Family

Collection of languages with a common ancestor Today, 6,800 languages grouped into about 120 language families Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-7 Major Language Families

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7C.3 7-8 7D: Geography of English Standard English is known as Received Pronunciation (RP) The English of educated British speakers in London American English starts splitting 500 years

ago Regional dialects and pidgins such as Gullah Distinct varieties in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, etc. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-9 English Today Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7D.1

7-10 Dialect Areas in the U.S. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7D.2 7-11 7E: Language Isolation & Extinction Languages change over space & time Language Divergence

When a language splits into two new languages Latin became French, Spanish, Romanian, etc. Language Convergence When two languages merge into one Language Isolate A language that belongs to no language family Language Extinction The death of a language 300 languages have died since the year 1500 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

7-12 Nearly Extinct Languages Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7E.2 7-13 7F: Toponymy The study of place names A place name can reflect: Physical features

Stony Point A function that happened at a place Minersville, PA Current or past cultures in the area Ideas such as Patriotism Independence, MO Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-14 Classical Town Names

Figure 7F.2 After Zelinsky Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-15 Unusual Place Names Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7F.3

7-16 7G: Language Conflict Conflict over language and place names is common Macedonias name angered Greece Israelis and Palestinians have changed names to indicated control of a space Arabian Gulf or Persian Gulf? Official language debates in the U.S. Quebec nationalist movements The French battle against loan words Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

7-17

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