Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Chapter 7 pgs. 145-159 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Chapter Overview Questions What are the major types of desert biomes? What are the major types of grassland biomes? What are the major types of forest and mountain biomes? How have human activities affected the worlds desert, grassland, forest, and mountain biomes? Tropical Rain Forest

Filling such niches enables species to avoid or minimize competition and coexist Figure 5-21 Emergent layer Harpy eagle Height (meters) Toco toucan Canopy Understory

Woolly opossum Black-crowned antipitta Brazilian tapir Shrub layer Ground layer Fig. 5-21, p. 118 Temperate Deciduous Forest Most of the trees

survive winter by dropping their leaves, which decay and produce a nutrient-rich soil. Figure 5-22 Broad-winged hawk Hairy Woodpecker Gray Squirrel White oak White-tailed

deer White-footed mouse Metallic wood-boring beetle and Larvae Mountain Winterberry Shagbark hickory Fungi May beetle Long-tailed weasel

Bacteria Producer to primary consumer Racer Wood frog Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer

All producers and consumers to decomposers Fig. 5-22, p. 120 Evergreen Coniferous Forests Consist mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees that keep their needles year-round to help the trees survive long and cold winters.

Figure 5-23 Great horned owl Blue jay Marten Balsam fir Moose White Spruce Wolf Bebb

willow Pine sawyer beetle and larvae Snowshoe hare Fungi Starflower Bacteria Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer

Secondary to higher-level consumer Bunchberry All producers and consumers to decomposers Fig. 5-23, p. 121 Temperate Rain Forests Coastal areas support huge cone-bearing evergreen trees such as redwoods and Douglas fir in a cool moist environment. Figure 5-24

MOUNTAIN BIOMES High-elevation islands of biodiversity Often have snowcovered peaks that reflect solar radiation and gradually release water to lowerelevation streams and ecosystems. Figure 5-25 HUMAN IMPACTS ON TERRESTRIAL BIOMES Human activities have damaged or disturbed

more than half of the worlds terrestrial ecosystems. Humans have had a number of specific harmful effects on the worlds deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains. Natural Capital Degradation Desert Large desert cities Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of groundwater Land disturbance and

pollution from mineral extraction Fig. 5-26, p. 123 Natural Capital Degradation Grasslands Conversion to cropland Release of CO2 to atmosphere from grassland burning Overgrazing by livestock Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Fig. 5-27, p. 123

Natural Capital Degradation Forests Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Damage from off-road vehicles Pollution of forest streams Fig. 5-28, p. 124 Natural Capital Degradation Mountains Agriculture Timber extraction Mineral extraction

Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road vehicles Fig. 5-29, p. 124

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