Chapter 4: Federalism Why Federalism? The Framers were dedicated to the concept of limited government. They were convinced The governmental power poses a threat to individual liberty That therefore the exercise of governmental power must be restrained, and That to divide governmental power, as federalism does, is to curb it and prevent its abuse.
Federalism Defined Federalism is a system of government in which a written constitution divides the powers of government on a territorial basis between a central, or national, government and several regional governments, usually called states or provinces. The Constitution provides for a division of powers, assigning certain powers to the National Government and certain powers to the States. Powers of the National Government The National Government is a government of delegated
powers, meaning that it only has those powers delegated (granted) to it in the Constitution. There are three types of delegated powers: 1.The expressed powers are those found directly within the Constitution. 2.The implied powers are not expressly stated in the Constitution, but are reasonably suggested, or implied by, the expressed powers. 3.The inherent powers belong to the National Government because it is the government of a sovereign state within the world community. There are few inherent powers, with an example being the National Governments ability to regulate immigration.
Powers Denied to the National Government Powers are denied to the National Government in three distinct ways: Some powers, such as the power to levy duties on exports or prohibit the freedom of religion, speech, press, or assembly, are expressly denied to the National Government in the Constitution. Also, some powers are denied to the National Government because the Constitution is silent on the issue. Finally, some powers are denied to the National Government because the federal system does not intend the National
Government to carry out those functions. The States Powers Reserved to the States The 10th Amendment declares that the States are governments of reserved powers. The reserved powers are those powers that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government
and does not, at the same time, deny to the States. Powers Denied to the States Just as the Constitution denies many powers the National Government, it also denies many powers to the States. Powers denied to the States are denied in much the same way that powers are denied to the National Government;
both expressly and inherently. The Exclusive and Concurrent Powers Exclusive Powers Powers that can be exercised by the National Government alone are known as the exclusive powers. Examples of the exclusive powers are the National Governments power to coin
money, to make treaties with foreign states, and to lay duties (taxes) on imports. Concurrent Powers The concurrent powers are those powers that both the National Government and the States possess and exercise. Some of the concurrent powers include the power to levy and collect taxes, to define crimes and set
punishments for them, and to claim private property for public use. The Federal System and Local Governments There are more than 87,000 units of local government in the United States today. Each of these local units is located within on the 50 States. Each State has created these units through its constitution and laws. Local governments, since they are created by States, are exercising State law through their own means.
The Division of Powers The federal system determines the way that powers are divided and shared between the National and State governments. The Supreme Law of the Land The Supremacy Clause in the Constitution establishes the Constitution and United States laws as the supreme Law of the
Land. The Nations Obligations to the States Republican Form of Government The Constitution requires the National Government to guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government. Invasion and Internal Disorder The National Government is also required to provide defense of the States from foreign invasion, and aid in protecting against domestic violence in the States.
Respect for Territorial The National Government is constitutionally bound to respect the territorial integrity of each of the States. The Major Disaster Process Admitting New States Only Congress has the power to admit new States to the Union. Congress first passes an enabling act, an act directing the people of the territory to frame a proposed State constitution.
If Congress agrees to Statehood after reviewing the submitted State constitution, it passes an act of admission, an act creating the new State. Cooperative Federalism Even though the basis of federalism is the division of powers between levels of government, there is still much cooperation between them. Federal Grants-in-Aid Revenue Sharing
Grants-in-aid programs are Revenue sharing, used between 1972 and 1987, grants of federal money or gave an annual share of other resources to the federal tax revenues to the States and/or their cities, States and their local counties, and other local governments. units. Federal Grants
Congress appropriates money for three types of grants-in-aid: Categorical Grants Categorical grants are made for some specific, closely defined purpose, such as school lunch programs or the construction of airports or water treatment plants. There are usually conditions, or strings, attached to regulate the use of these funds. Block Grants Block grants are portions of money allocated to States to use for broader purposes, such as health care, social services, or welfare. Block grants often are granted with fewer strings attached. Project Grants
Project grants are provided to States, localities, and sometimes private agencies that apply to them. They are used for a variety of purposes ranging from medical research to job training and employment programs. Interstate Compacts No State may enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation. However, the States may, with the consent of Congress, enter into interstate compactsagreements among themselves and with foreign states. More than 200 compacts are now in force, and range in a variety of uses from sharing law-enforcement data to
resource development and conservation. Full Faith and Credit The Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution ensures that States recognize the laws, documents, and court proceedings of the other states. There are two exceptions to the clause though: 1.One state cannot enforce another States criminal laws, and 2.Full faith and credit need not be given to certain divorces granted by one State to residents of another State.
Extradition Extradition is the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is returned to that State. Extradition is upheld through Article IV, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution. Governors are the State executives that handle the extradition process. If a governor is unwilling to return a fugitive to a State, federal courts can intervene and order that governor to do so. Privileges and Immunities
The Privileges and Immunities Clause provides that no State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other States. States cannot, for example, pay lower welfare benefits to newly arrived residents than it does to its long-term residents, Saens v. Roe, 1999. However, States can draw reasonable distinctions between its own residents and those of space, such as charging out-ofState residents higher tuition for State universities than inState residents.
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