peripheral cells: --small and immature --single and flattened central cell: --large and mature, --round and in group of 2-8 cells: isogenous group
--small and round nucleus --basophilic cytoplasm --EM: rich in RER and Golgi complex Chondroblast secret matrix and fiber
chondrocyte isogenous group: several cells locates in one lacuna, which are derived from a single (same) parent cell Cartilage matrix ---ground substance:
proteoglycan: --same to loose CT --there are more chondroitin sulfate distributed at the periphery of cartilage lacuna---called as cartilage capsule (basophilic) water ---fiber: type and number of fiber depends on the type of cartilage
2)Classification: according to the fiber a. Hyaline cartilage: less collagenous fibril articular surface,
rib cartilage, trachea and bronchi b. Fibrous cartilage: large amount of collagenous fiber bundles
cells are small and less intervertebral disc, symphysis pubis c. Elastic cartilage: large amount of elastic fiber
3) perichondrium two layers: ---out layer: contain more fiber-protection ---inner layer: more cells-osteoprogenitor cell (fusiform in shape) 4) growth of cartilage
---interstitial growth: inner chondrocyte proliferation produce fiber and matrix. ---appositional growth: osteoprogenitor cell chondroblast produce fiber and matrix chondrocyte
growing and mature cartilage 2.Bone ---consists of bone tissue, periosteum and endosteum, bone marrow
1) Bone tissue Cells: Osteoprogenitor cell osteoblast
osteocyte osteoclast a. osteoprogenitor cell: stem cell ---structure: fusiform, small
ovoid nucleus slight basophilic cytoplasm exist in periosteum and endosteum ---function: differentiated into osteoblast and chondrocyte b. osteoblast: ---structure:
LM: single layer of cuboidal or low columnar cell round nucleus basophilic cytoplasm located on the surface of bone tissue EM:
fine processes rich in RER, Golgi complex ---function: .synthesize bone collagen fiber and ground substance - osteoid .release matrix vesicle:
0.1um in diameter membrane-coated ALPase (Alkaline phosphatase), ATPase and pyrophosphatase and phosphoester (phospholipid)
calcium, crystal of bone salt function: promote calcification c.osteocyte ---structure: flattened cell with multiple
long thin processes located in bone lacuna and bone canaliculus basophilic cytoplasm adjacent cells connect in bone canaliculus by gap junctions ---function: Maintain bone matrix
regulate the balance of calcium and phosphonium d. osteoclast ---structure: LM: multinuclear large cell, 30-100um 6-50 nuclei
acidophilic cytoplasm located at peripheral part of bone EM: ruffled border-processes light zone: --under the ruffled border
--microfilament primary lysosome and secondary lysosome RER, mito. and Golgi ---function: dissolve and absorb bone matrix Bone matrix ---organic matter: bone collagen fiber -collagenous fiber
(type I collagen) ground substance: glycosaminoglycan glycoproteins ---inorganic matter: bone salts *bone lamella: bone matrix arranged in layers at different direction
2) Architacture of long bone Long bone is an organ, made up of bone tissue , periosteum and endosteum, bone
marrow shaft: consists of compact bone a. circumferential lamella: /outer circumferential lamella /inner circumferential lamella
b. Haversian system (osteon): /central canal: N, BV, CT /Haversian lamella: 4-20 layers c. interstitial lamella: /irregular lamella /remnant of Haversian
or circumferential lamella *perforating canal: /transverse canal /connect with Haversian canal epiphyses: composed of spongy bone ---trabeculae: formed by parallelly-arranged lamella
form a spongy-liked network ---Bone marrow: hemopoietic tissue periosteum and endosteum: CT membrane ---periosteum: DCT outer layer:more fiber bundles form perforating fiber inner layer:
rich in BV, N and osteoprogenitor cells ---endosteum: thin, a layer of osteoprogenitor cell and CT ---function: provide nutrition and osteoblast for bone growth and repairing 3)
osteogenesis ---formation: osteoprogenitor cell osteoblast osteoid calcification osteocyte + bone matrix bone tissue
---absorption: osteoclast dissolve bone tissuereconstruction a. intramembranous ossification: ---CT membrane osteoprogenitor cell osteoblastossification centerbone trabeculae thicker and longer
---flattened bone and irregular bone formed in these manner b. endochondral ossification: e.g. long bone .formation of cartilage model Mesenchymal cellosteoprogenitor cell
chondroblastchondrocytecartilage model (consists of hyaline cartilage and perichondrium) .formation of bone collar osteoprogenitor cell (perichondrium) osteoblast bone tissue
.formation of primary ossification center and bone marrow cavity chondrocytes of model center stop differentiation, enlarge
in size, calcification, dead CT, BV in periosteum enter degenerating zone osteoblast, osteoclast, osteoprogenitor cell and mesenchymal cell enter at same timeossificationprimary
ossification center primary bone marrow cavity(space between trabeculae) bone marrow cavity .Formation of secondary ossification center and epiphyses
secondary ossification center appears at the two end of long bone (epiphyses) epiphyseal plate: cartilage layer between epiphysis and bone shaft, growing zone reserve cartilage zone
proliferating cartilage zone Further growth of bone ---Become longer: by growth of epiphyseal plate from epiphyses to shaft, four zones can be seen: i. reserve cartilage zone: cell is small, round and basophilic
ii. proliferating cartilage zone: cell is flattened, isogenous group cell arrange in single line calcified cartilage zone ossification zone iii. calcified cartilage zone: cell become large, mature, round and degenerated, strong
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