Chapter 6 Understanding Each Other CSE 431 Intelligent Agents XML Example Yankee Hotel FoxtrotWilco RDF and OWL
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Recommendations RDF(S) (1999, revised 2004) labeled directed graphs essentially semantic networks with URIs XML serialization syntax rdfs:Class rdf:Property rdf:type
rdf:type rdf:type g:Person rdfs:domain rdfs:subclassOf u:Chair rdf:type g:name g:name John Smith
OWL (2004) extends RDF with more semantic primitives based on description logics (DLs) has a model theoretic semantics
A Band is a subset of the groups which only have Musicians as members 3 of 30 Ontology Header ]>
An example ontology ... OWL Class Constructors example taken from Ian Horrocks Defining Simple Classes owl:Class subset of rdfs:Class, excludes metaclasses
rdfs:subClassOf specify formal taxonomies owl:Thing set of all individuals owl:Nothing empty set of individuals Defining Properties two kinds object properties relation between two objects
datatype properties relations between an object and a datatype value constructors rdfs:domain rdfs:range rdfs:subPropertyOf OWL Axioms example taken from Ian Horrocks Equality/Inequality Two URIs refer to the same individual.
Two URIs refer to distinct individuals Sets of Distinct Individuals
The URIs #Bob, #Sue and #Mary all refer to distinct individuals. All Values From A Band is a subclass of the set of entities which only have members that are Musicians Some Values From
Every Band has at least one member who is a Singer Has Value A Guitarist is a subclass of the set of entities which play at least one instrument that is a Guitar.
Minimum Cardinality 1 Parent is exactly the set of entities which have at least one child.
Intersection and Union A Father is exactly a Parent who is also Male.
Every Person is Male or Female. Complement Man is every Person who is not a Woman.
Disjoint Classes How is this different from owl:complementOf? owl:disjointWith does not allow you to conclude that if someone is not Male, then they must be Female This is a weaker statement than owl:complementOf! Enumerated Classes
PrimaryColor has exactly three instances: Red, Blue and Yellow. Reasoning with OWL Consistency checking Does the ontology contradict itself? Subsumption C D: is D more general than C? Concept satisfiability Is it possible for a concept to have instances?
Classification What is the proper place of a concept in a taxonomy? The Semantic Web Definition The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. (Berners-Lee et al., Scientific American, May 2001) Ontology a key component of the Semantic Web ontologies define the semantics of the terms used in semi-structured
web pages identify context, provide shared definitions has a formal syntax and unambiguous semantics usually includes a taxonomy, but typically much more inference algorithms can compute what logically follows Linked Data > 149 billion triples of data in over 2800 data sets Level of Adoption?
Open source Semantic Web tools from IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Nokia, etc. Commercial software vendors Oracle 11g RDBMS supports RDF and much of OWL Adobes products use RDF to provide metadata for documents, photos Semantic Web specific companies: TopQuadrant, Aduna Software, etc. >400 million Semantic Web documents (as of October 2011)
Yahoo SearchMonkey uses RDF to present richer search results Google indexes RDFa (a means for embedding RDF in web pages) Semantic Web enabled sites Data.gov: much of U.S. governments open data is available in RDF Newsweek: annotates articles with RDFa Library of Congress: modernize the bibliographic environment BBC Music: exports RDF playlists, RDF for all artists
DBPedia: a Semantic Web version of Wikipedia BestBuy publishes product and store information in RDF Ontology Engineering determine domain and scope consider reusing existing ontologies
enumerate important terms define the classes and the class hierarchy define the properties define the property restrictions (facets) create instances check for anomalies
After each sentence, show the children the sentence so that they can check that they spelt the words correctly and included a capital letter, all the punctuation needed and suitably sized spaces between words. * Ask the children to look...
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Definition of Key Terms. Father Hunger. A lack of sufficient fathering due to death, emotional unavailability or desertion and the child's yearning for this fathering, often throughout their life span.
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Suffix A word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning; indicates the procedure, disease, or condition Examples -itis= inflammation algia= pain ic= pertaining to ous= pertaining to Prefix A word part attached to the...
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