Chapter 3 Deductive Reasoning Agents - Lehigh CSE

Chapter 3 Deductive Reasoning Agents - Lehigh CSE

Chapter 6 Understanding Each Other CSE 431 Intelligent Agents XML Example Yankee Hotel Foxtrot Wilco War on War RDF and OWL

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Recommendations RDF(S) (1999, revised 2004) labeled directed graphs essentially semantic networks with URIs XML serialization syntax rdfs:Class rdf:Property rdf:type

rdf:type rdf:type g:Person rdfs:domain rdfs:subclassOf u:Chair rdf:type g:name g:name John Smith

OWL (2004) extends RDF with more semantic primitives based on description logics (DLs) has a model theoretic semantics

A Band is a subset of the groups which only have Musicians as members 3 of 30 Ontology Header ]>

My Ontology An example ontology ... OWL Class Constructors example taken from Ian Horrocks Defining Simple Classes owl:Class subset of rdfs:Class, excludes metaclasses

rdfs:subClassOf specify formal taxonomies owl:Thing set of all individuals owl:Nothing empty set of individuals Defining Properties two kinds object properties relation between two objects

datatype properties relations between an object and a datatype value constructors rdfs:domain rdfs:range rdfs:subPropertyOf OWL Axioms example taken from Ian Horrocks Equality/Inequality Two URIs refer to the same individual.

Two URIs refer to distinct individuals Sets of Distinct Individuals

The URIs #Bob, #Sue and #Mary all refer to distinct individuals. All Values From

A Band is a subclass of the set of entities which only have members that are Musicians Some Values From

Every Band has at least one member who is a Singer Has Value A Guitarist is a subclass of the set of entities which play at least one instrument that is a Guitar.

Minimum Cardinality 1 Parent is exactly the set of entities which have at least one child.

Intersection and Union A Father is exactly a Parent who is also Male.

Every Person is Male or Female. Complement Man is every Person who is not a Woman.

Disjoint Classes How is this different from owl:complementOf? owl:disjointWith does not allow you to conclude that if someone is not Male, then they must be Female This is a weaker statement than owl:complementOf! Enumerated Classes

PrimaryColor has exactly three instances: Red, Blue and Yellow. Reasoning with OWL Consistency checking Does the ontology contradict itself? Subsumption C D: is D more general than C? Concept satisfiability Is it possible for a concept to have instances?

Classification What is the proper place of a concept in a taxonomy? The Semantic Web Definition The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. (Berners-Lee et al., Scientific American, May 2001) Ontology a key component of the Semantic Web ontologies define the semantics of the terms used in semi-structured

web pages identify context, provide shared definitions has a formal syntax and unambiguous semantics usually includes a taxonomy, but typically much more inference algorithms can compute what logically follows Linked Data > 149 billion triples of data in over 2800 data sets Level of Adoption?

Open source Semantic Web tools from IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Nokia, etc. Commercial software vendors Oracle 11g RDBMS supports RDF and much of OWL Adobes products use RDF to provide metadata for documents, photos Semantic Web specific companies: TopQuadrant, Aduna Software, etc. >400 million Semantic Web documents (as of October 2011)

Yahoo SearchMonkey uses RDF to present richer search results Google indexes RDFa (a means for embedding RDF in web pages) Semantic Web enabled sites Data.gov: much of U.S. governments open data is available in RDF Newsweek: annotates articles with RDFa Library of Congress: modernize the bibliographic environment BBC Music: exports RDF playlists, RDF for all artists

DBPedia: a Semantic Web version of Wikipedia BestBuy publishes product and store information in RDF Ontology Engineering determine domain and scope consider reusing existing ontologies

enumerate important terms define the classes and the class hierarchy define the properties define the property restrictions (facets) create instances check for anomalies

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