Chapter 2: Realism - Routledge

Chapter 2: Realism - Routledge

Chapter 2: Realism Is international anarchy the permissive cause of war? 2014 Cynthia Weber Learning aims: Understand the international anarchy myth Tell the difference between realism and neorealism Understand developments in Waltzs thinking and why these matter

Critically reflect on the work that fear does for the international anarchy myth 2014 Cynthia Weber Last week: Introduction Culture: an ensemble of stories we tell about ourselves (Geertz, 1975) Ideology: Conscious (e.g. liberalism) and unconscious (e.g. boys will be boys) The myth function in IR: cultural interpretation Myth function Natural Fact 2014 Cynthia Weber y

t (Neo) Realism Flashcard h i n k e r s : Concepts: Sovereign States H a Human Nature Myth:n international anarchy is the permissive International Anarchy cause of war s

Fear M o r g e n t 2014 Cynthia Weber h Realism vs. Neorealism (table 2.1) Interest of States How to achieve survival Human nature Anarchy Realism Survival Increase power because

world government is unachievable Man is flawed and therefore prone to conflict. This explains why cooperation is never guaranteed and world government is unachievable The environment in which sovereign nation-states act 2014 Cynthia Weber Neorealism Survival Increase power because world government is unachievable Man may or may not be flawed. Human nature is

not essential to an explanation of conflict Describes the social relations among sovereign nation-states that causally explain why wars occur Causes of war for Waltz (table 2.2) Location Description Type of cause First image Nature of man Immediate

Second image International organization of states and societies Immediate Third image International anarchy Permissive 2014 Cynthia Weber Waltzian neorealism (table 2.3) Domestic Global Domestic Global

Structure Ordering principle Formal differentiation Hierarchy Heterogeneous Centered Dissimilar Heterogeneous Anarchy Decentered Political processes Specialization Intimidation Balancing Consequences Relationships High interdependence Low interdependence

2014 Cynthia Weber Distribution of power Monopoly Oligopoly Goals Maximize welfare Maximize security Theory activity: International anarchy is the permissive cause of war Aim: Be able to understand the workings of Waltzs myth (international anarchy is the permissive cause of war) through a real world example Scenario: Iran has acquired nuclear weapons Divide into five groups: Iran, USA, US ally (Britain), Neutral state (Sweden) and World government (quasi world government/ UN)

2014 Cynthia Weber Theory activity cont. USA UK Iran Sweden World government Quasi-world government No world or quasi-world government What would your country do in the different scenarios? Use the table to chart out the

different possibilities 2014 Cynthia Weber How does Lord of the Flies represent hierarchy and anarchy? How does Lord of the Flies represent hierarchy and anarchy? (table 2.4) Hierarchy Anarchy Characterized by rules, reason, law and order, all of which are guaranteed by the presence of adults Characterized by the absence of guarantees to order or reason because of the absence of adults 2014 Cynthia Weber

What is typical and what is deviant in the two worlds of the Lord of the Flies? (table 2.5) 2014 Cynthia Weber Lord of the Flies (box 2.2) Where does fear figure in Waltzs myth as enacted in Lord of the Flies? 2014 Cynthia Weber Lord of the Flies (table 2.6) The locations of fear in Lord of the Flies Location Description First image Human nature Second image Third image None of Waltzs images

International organization of states and societies International anarchy Irrationally generated by the boys themselves and externalized 2014 Cynthia Weber Illustration Jack and his followers increasing savagery Jacks bad tribe against Ralphs good tribe Competitive, self-help system in which boys create security dilemma on island The beast

2014 Cynthia Weber How does the film make sense of the world? What does the film say is typical and deviant in that world? Where is FEAR located in the film? Discuss content of film: plot, characters and cinematic effects Use film Lord of the Flies to investigate how Waltzs myth international anarchy is the permissive cause of war functions and to show that FEAR is a necessary supplement to this myth Answer Discuss Aim Film activity: Lord of the Flies and fear Next week: Idealism

Film: Independence Day Domestic analogy Is there an international society? 2014 Cynthia Weber

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