Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Cold Sauces and Cold Soups Chapter Objectives Understand and identify cold emulsion sauces Recognize basic vinaigrette preparation Prepare and repair mayonnaise sauces Identify dairy-based sauces, salsas, coulis and pures and miscellaneous sauces Explain the preparation of coating sauces

including the use of gelatin Describe a variety of cold soups such as vegetable and fruit soups, cream-style soups and clear cold soups Cold Sauces In the kitchen, the chefs sauce repertoire includes: Cold emulsion sauces

vinaigrettes and mayonnaise Dairy-based sauces Salsas Coulis and pures Coating sauces Miscellaneous cold sauces such as horseradish and mignonette Cold Emulsion Sauces 1) 2)

An emulsion is made by combining two ingredients that would not otherwise blend into a homogeneous mixture. An emulsion has two phases: Dispersed phase: an oil that is broken into very small droplets Continuous phase: oil droplets are suspended in the vinegar Temporary Emulsions Form quickly Require mechanical action of whipping, shaking or stirring Example: vinaigrettes

Emulsifiers Needed to keep the oil in suspension and make the emulsion stable Examples of emulsifiers: Egg yolks Mustard Glace de viande Starches

Cornstarch and arrowroot Basic Vinaigrettes Basic ratio: 3 parts oil to 1 part acid Temporary emulsion made by the measured ingredients until they form a homogenous sauce Remains an emulsion for a short time and separates back into oil and vinegar Best way to check for flavor and balance: dip a piece of lettuce into it, shake off the excess, and evaluate the taste of the sauce

on the lettuce Emulsified Vinaigrettes 1) 2) 3) Ratio of oil and vinegar same (3 to 1) Step for making an emulsified vinaigrette: Combine the vinegar and all seasoning ingredients. Add the emulsifier. Add the oil gradually, whisking constantly, a little at a time until an emulsion if formed then whisk oil in at a steady stream. Add any garnishes and check for seasoning.

Reduced-Fat Vinaigrettes Replace up to two-thirds of oil with a lightly thickened stock or juice. Purees of fruits and vegetables can also be used in place of part of the vinaigrettes oil. Same steps for combining and readjusting seasoning used as for other vinaigrettes. Mayonnaise

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Preparation: Select and prepare ingredients: 6 to 8 ounces oil for each egg yolk. (usually pasteurized yolks) Blend the yolks with a bit of water. You may want to add an acid or mustard at this point. Add the oil a little at a time, whisking in the oil completely. Once one-fourth to one-third of the oil has been blended in correctly, you may start to increase the amount you add. Adjust the thickness and flavor of the sauce.

Add any additional flavoring or garnish ingredients. When Mayonnaise Breaks Reasons: Oil added too rapidly Sauce was allowed to become too thick Sauce became too cold as it was being prepared

Sauce became too warm as it was being prepared Fixing a Broken Mayonnaise 1) 2) Beat a pasteurized egg yolk until foamy. Gradually incorporate the broken mayonnaise, whisking constantly. The mayonnaise should combine into a homogenous sauce. Taste and season before serving. Dairy-Based Sauces

Used as salad dressing or dips Made from soft cheeses or cultured milks Generally white or ivory Can be prepared in a range of textures from stiff to pourable Typical additions include cheeses, fresh lemon, black pepper, and minced or chopped herbs, vegetables, capers, pickles or olives. Salsas

Typically made from uncooked fruits or vegetables Often include an acid Spices, chilies and herbs sometimes added Chutneys, relishes and compotes have a similar preparation method Coulis and Pures

Coulis are made by pureing raw or cooked fruits or vegetables to a sauce-like consistency. The terms coulis and pure can be used interchangeably. Textures range from very light and smooth to coarse May be served as is or adjusted with additional ingredients Coating Sauces: Chaud-Froid

Term chaud-froid means hot and cold Chaud-froids are made by adding gelatin to a warm sauce like demi-glace, bchamel, or velout It is warmed over a hot water bath and then cooled over an ice water bath as the gelatin thickens and the sauce clings to the sides of the bowl A quickly prepared substitute is made by thickening heavy cream and/or sour cream with an appropriate amount of gelatin to produce a coating consistency Coating Sauces: Aspic Gele

Clear coating sauce Made by clarifying stocks, juices or essences and adding enough gelatin to achieve desired strength After making the aspic gele, temper it over an ice water bath until it thickens It can now be used for coating Types of gelatin: granulated or powdered gelatin, gelatin sheets and instant gelatin Ratios for Aspic Ratio per gallon 2 oz Ratio per

pint oz Gel Strength 4 oz oz Coating gel 6 8 oz 1 oz Sliceable gel 10 12 oz

1 - 1 oz Firm Gel 16 oz 2 oz Mousse Strength Delicate gel Preparing Gelatin 1) 2) 3) 4)

5) Weigh the gelatin carefully Add the gelatin to a cool liquid Bloom the gelatin Melt the gelatin enough to dissolve the granules Test the gelatin strength Miscellaneous Sauces Include:

Cumberland Mint Cocktail Oxford Horseradish Dipping sauces (for satay or tempura) Cold Soups Served as:

First course Appetizer Hors doeuvre Dessert Taste it at the correct service temperature. Cold Soups Fruit and Vegetable Soups: made by chopping or pureeing fruits and vegetable finely enough to form a souplike consistency Cream Soups: made from a thickened base

such as bchamel, velout or a potato pure Clear Soups: made by clarifying and fortifying a rich broth that can be thickened with gelatin

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