Chapter 14 Geology and Mineral Resources

Chapter 14 Geology and Mineral Resources

Exploring Environmental Science for AP 1st Edition Chapter 11 Geology, Soil, and Mineral Resources Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold Harmful effects of gold mining

Massive amounts of rock dug to yield small amounts of gold Highly toxic cyanide salts used to extract the gold into settling ponds Toxic to birds and mammals Threaten underground drinking water supplies Romanian gold mine dam collapsed in 2000 Contaminated rivers with cyanide and toxic metals Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

11.1 What Are the Earths Major Geological Processes/Mineral Resources? Dynamic processes within the earth and on its surface produce mineral resources Mineral resources are nonrenewable Produced and renewed over millions of years mostly by the earths rock cycle Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet (1 of 3) Geology Study of dynamic processes taking place on the earths surface and in its interior Three major concentric zones of the earth Core Mantle, including the asthenosphere Crust Continental crust Oceanic crust: 71% of crust Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet (2 of 3) Insert figure 11.2 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet (3 of 3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in

whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. What Are Minerals and Rocks? (1 of 2) Mineral Naturally occurring chemical element or compound that exists as a crystalline solid Mineral resource Concentration that we can extract and process into raw materials Nonrenewable

Rock Solid combination of one or more minerals Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. What Are Minerals and Rocks? (2 of 2) Sedimentary rock Made of sediments Dead plant and animal remains Tiny particles of weathered and eroded rocks

Igneous rock Forms under intense heat and pressure Metamorphic rock Existing rock subjected to high temperatures, pressures, fluids, or a combination Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earths Rocks Are Recycled Slowly (1 of 2) Rock cycle

Rocks are recycled over millions of years Erosion, melting, and metamorphism Slowest of the earths cycle processes Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

11.2 What Processes Lead to Soil Formations? Physical, chemical, and biological processes all contribute to the formation of soil. Soil is a renewable resource and a key factor in nutrient cycling Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Soil Begins from Bedrock (1 of 2) The process of weathering breaks up parent

material that is the foundation of soil. Lichens secrete acid that breaks down rock, the first step in primary succession Humus is formed from dead organic material, releasing nutrients and holding moisture Physical, chemical and biological processes form soil Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Soil Begins from Bedrock (2 of 2)

Insert figure 11.5 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Soil is a Renewable Resource (1 of 3) Living , organisms rely on soil is essential for agriculture, provides the medium for growing timber, and provides ecological services such as purifying water and degrading wastes Mature soils contain horizons

O (leaf litter) A (top soil) B (subsoil) C (weathered parent material) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Soil is a Renewable Resource (2 of 3) Insert figure 11.6 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Soil is a Renewable Resource (3 of 3) Several factors influence the formation of soil Warm and wet environments form soil faster

Tropical rain forest soils have little organic material in soil and are nutrient poor. Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Importance of Soil Nutrients (1 of 2) Most nutrients in a and O horizons Fertile soil produces high crop yields with this topsoil and bacteria that convert nitrogen into ions that plants can assimilate B and C horizons contain most of the soils

inorganic material Soil texture determines porosity and permeability Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Importance of Soil Nutrients (2 of 2) Insert figure 11.8 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

11.3 How Long Might Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last? Nonrenewable mineral resources exist in finite amounts Can become economically depleted when it costs more than it is worth to find, extract, and process the remaining deposits There are several ways to extend supplies of mineral resources Methods limited by economic and environmental factors

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (1 of 2) Ore Contains profitable concentration of a mineral May be high-grade or low-grade Metallic mineral resources

Aluminum Steel: a mixture of iron and other elements Copper Gold Molybdenum Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

We Depend on a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (2 of 2) Nonmetallic mineral resources Sand Gravel Limestone Phosphate

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted (1 of 3) Reserves Identified deposits from which we can extract the mineral profitably at current prices Economic depletion Occurs when extraction costs more than remaining

deposits are worth Depletion time Time to use a certain portion (usually 80%) of reserves at a given rate of use Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted (2 of 3) Options when a resource becomes economically

depleted Recycle or reuse existing supplies Waste less Use less Find a substitute Do without

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted (3 of 3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Case Study: The Crucial Importance of Rare Earth Metals (1 of 2)

17 rare earth metals Important for several widely used technologies Products made with rare earth metals LCD flat screens Compact fluorescent and LED light bulbs Solar cells

Fiber-optic cables Batteries and motors for electric cars Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Case Study: The Crucial Importance of Rare Earth Metals (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Market Prices Affect Supplies of Mineral Resources (1 of 2) Higher prices can: Encourage exploration for new deposits Stimulate development of better mining technologies Make it profitable to mine lower-grade ores

Promote conservation Promote theft Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Market Prices Affect Supplies of Mineral Resources (2 of 2) Subsidies, tax breaks, and import tariffs control the supply, demand, and prices of key mineral resources U.S. mining companies receive various subsidies

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Can We Expand Reserves by Mining Lower-Grade Ores? Factors that limit the mining of lower-grade ores Increased cost and energy to mine and process larger volumes of ore Availability of freshwater Environmental impact of land disruption

Improve mining technology Using microorganismsbiomining Slow process Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Can We Get More Minerals from the Oceans? (1 of 3) Mineral resources dissolved in the ocean Low concentrations

Deposits of minerals in sediments along the shallow continental shelf and near shorelines Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Can We Get More Minerals from the Oceans? (2 of 3) Hydrothermal ore deposits Hot water vents in the ocean floor Metals from the ocean floor

Manganese nodules What is the effect of mining on aquatic life? Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Case Study: The Crucial Importance of Rare Earth Metals (3 of 3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or

otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 11.4 What Are The Environmental Effects of Using Nonrenewable Mineral Resources? Extracting minerals from the earths crust and converting them into useful products: Disturbs the land Erodes soils

Produces large amounts of solid waste Pollutes the air, water, and soil Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (1 of 8) Metal product life cycle Mining, processing, manufacture, and disposal Environmental impacts

Determined by an ores grade Percentage of metal content Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (2 of 8) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (3 of 8) Surface mining Removes shallow deposits Overburden deposited into spoils Waste material Open-pit mining Strip mining Area strip mining Contour strip mining

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (4 of 8) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (5 of 8)

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (6 of 8) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful

Environmental Effects (7 of 8) Mountaintop removal Subsurface mining Deep deposits Potential problems Subsidence Health hazards for miners Acid mine drainage Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Extracting Minerals Can Have Harmful Environmental Effects (8 of 8) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Critical Concept: Life Cycle of a Product The life cycle of a product traces the impacts of each step of a products existence from harvesting or mining the materials to produce it, its use, and how it is discarded, as well as the energy invested

at each step. Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Critical Concept: External, or Hidden Costs (1 of 2) External costs are those costs to the environment or human health not included in the price of the product. Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Critical Concept: External, or Hidden Costs (1 of 2) Insert figure 11.A Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1 of 2)

Ore extracted by mining Ore mineral Tailingswaste material (gangue) Smelting using heat or chemicals causes: Air pollution Water pollution Poverty-stricken miners in less-developed countries have cleared tropical forests Use mercury to separate gold from its ore Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 14.4 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainability? Methods for more sustainable mineral use Try to find substitutes for scarce resources

Reduce resource waste Recycle and reuse minerals Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Find Substitutes for Scarce Mineral Resources Materials revolution Silicon replacing some metals for common uses New technologies Nanotechnology and high-strength plastics

Graphene and phosphorene Substitution doesnt always work Platinumindustrial catalyst Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Case Study: Graphene and Phosphorene - New Revolutionary Materials Graphene is made from graphite Light, flexible, stretchable, very strong

Excellent conductor of electricity Can make stronger and lighter plastics Phosphorene is a single layer of black phosphorus molecules More efficient semiconductor than silicon Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably (1 of 2) Recycling and reuse

Lower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from ores Extract valuable metals from electronic waste Find substitutes without heavy environmental impacts Lithium Supplies unevenly distributed worldwide Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably (2 of 2) Insert figure 11.2 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 11.6 What Are the Earths Major Geological Hazards? Dynamic processes move matter within the earth and on its surface Cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, erosion, and landslides

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (1 of 2) The earths crust is broken into tectonic plates Float on the asthenosphere Slow movement of continenets is called continental drift Much geological activity takes place at plate boundaries

Divergent boundary Convergent boundary Transform plate boundary Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or

otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earths Interior (1 of 2) Volcano Magma rising through the lithosphere reaches the earths surface through a crack (fissure) Eruptionrelease of lava, hot ash, and gases into the environment Volcanos form majestic mountain ranges and lakes Formed Hawaiian islands Can also cause destruction

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earths Interior (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events

(1 of 4) Earthquake Breakage and shifting of rocks Occurs at a fault Seismic waves Vibrations in the crust Focusorigin of earthquake Magnitudeseverity of earthquake Amplitudesize of the seismic waves Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events (2 of 4) Richter scale

Insignificant: <4.0 Minor: 4.04.9 Damaging: 5.05.9 Destructive: 6.06.9 Major: 7.07.9 Great: >8.0 Largest recorded: 9.5 in Chile, 1960 Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events (3 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events (4 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Tsunamis (1 of 3) Tsunami Series of huge waves generated when ocean floor suddenly rises or drops Travels several hundred miles per hour Slows down as it approaches coastline December 2004Indian Ocean tsunami Magnitude 9.15 earthquake Over 230,000 people lost their lives No warning system in place

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Tsunamis (2 of 3) 2011Japan tsunami Killed almost 19,000 people Damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors Detection of tsunamis Buoys in open ocean

Pressure recorders on the ocean floor Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Tsunamis (3 of 3) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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