Chapter 13: Social Influence and Persuasion

Chapter 13: Social Influence and Persuasion

Chapter 8 - Social Influence and Persuasion Two Types of Social Influence Techniques of Social Influence Persuasion Resisting Persuasion Social Influence and Persuasion James Warren Jones Jonestown (1978) How could Jim Jones have influenced his followers to such a deep level that more than

900 committed revolutionary suicide? Normative Social Influence Normative Influence Going along with the crowd to be liked Social Norms social standards that prescribe how we should behave Descriptive What most people do Injunctive what other approve/disapprove of

Asch (1955) study of normative influence Conformity increases as group size increases Dissension reduces conformity Deviating from the group Social rejection Informational Social Influence Going along with the crowd because you

believe the crowd knows more than you do The desire to be right Strongest in: Ambiguous situations Crisis situations When experts are present Two Types of Social Influence Informational influence produces private acceptance Genuine inner belief that others are right Normative influence produces public

compliance Inner belief that the group is wrong Social Influence Principles 1. Reciprocity 2. Consistency 3. Social proof 4. Authority 5. Likeability 6. Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

Social Influence Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Consistency Social proof Authority

Likeability Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles 1. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another 2.

Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Social proof Authority Likeability Scarcity 3. 4. 5. 6. person has provided us

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another

person has provided us Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct Authority Likeability Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles

1. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another 2. Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent 3. 4. 5. 6. person has provided us

with what we have already done Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority Likeability Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

Likeability: we say yes to someone we like Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority Likeability: we say yes to someone we like Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Social Influence Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another

person has provided us Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority Likeability: we say yes to someone we like Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993) Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of commitment and consistency

Foot-in-the-Door Technique Start with small request to gain eventual compliance with larger request Low-ball Technique Start with low-cost request and later reveal the hidden costs Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of commitment and consistency Bait-and-Switch Technique Draw people in with an attractive offer that

is not available and then switch to a less attractive offer that is available Labeling Technique Assigning a label to an individual and then making a request consistent with that label Self-Fulfilling prophesy Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of commitment and consistency All of these relate to various theories: Self-Perception Cognitive Dissonance

Effort Justification We have made a commitment in some way and we want to maintain a perception of consistency about ourselves. Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of reciprocity Social Norm of Reciprocity Door-in-the-Face Technique

Start with an inflated request and then retreat to a smaller one that appears to be a concession Does not work if the first request is viewed as unreasonable or if requests are made by different people Thats-Not-All Technique Begin with inflated request but immediately add to the deal by offering a bonus or discount Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of scarcity

Rare opportunities are more valuable than plentiful ones Limited-Number Technique Fast-Approaching Deadline Technique Scarcity heuristic in decision making What is rare is good. Psychological reactance When personal freedoms are threatened, we experience this unpleasant emotional response

Techniques of Social Influence: based on principles of Capturing and Disrupting Attention Strong Arguments Capture Attention Weak Arguments Disrupt Attention Pique Technique One captures peoples attention by making a novel request Disrupt-then-Reframe Technique Introduce an unexpected element that

disrupts critical thinking and then reframe the message in a positive light Persuasion Attempt to change a persons mind Three components of persuasion Who Source of the message Say What Actual message To Whom Audience Who: The Source Source credibility

Expertise Trustworthiness Sleeper effect over time, people separate the message from the messenger Source likability Similarity Physical attractiveness - Halo effect Assume other positive qualities Say What: The Message

Reason Versus Emotion Facts appeal to intellectual, analytical thinkers. People in a good mood more responsive to persuasive messages Humor and Moderate fear have been shown to be persuasive Say What: The Message Stealing Thunder

Revealing potentially incriminating evidence to negate its importance Source appears more honest and credible Two-Sided Argument More effective, especially for intelligent, thoughtful audience Say What: The Message Repetition If neutral or positive response initially, repeated exposure = persuasive message Repetition with variety

Advertisement wear-out is a condition of inattention and possible irritation that occurs after an audience or target market has encountered a specific advertisement too many times To Whom: The Audience Moderately intelligent are easiest to persuade People high in need for cognition are more persuaded by strong arguments

Attitudes are more resistant to change People high in public self-consciousness are more persuaded by name brand and styles To Whom: The Audience Impressionable years hypothesis Middle-aged people most resistant to persuasion Attitudes formed in young adulthood remain fairly stable over time

Messages consistent with cultural values are more persuasive To Whom: The Audience Overheard messages are more persuasive Product placements Distraction Effective if the message is weak Less effective with a strong message Two Routes to Persuasion

Elaboration likelihood model Heuristic/Systematic model Both propose automatic and conscious processing are involved in persuasion Two Routes to Persuasion Central route Involves conscious processing Careful and thoughtful consideration Peripheral route Involves automatic processing Influenced by some simple cue

Elaboration Likelihood Model Motivation to process message Personal relevance Need for cognition Ability to process Distractions Knowledge Elaboration Likelihood Model Type of cognitive processing

Quality of the arguments Initial attitude Peripheral cues Speaker credibility Reaction of others External rewards Alpha and Omega Strategies Alpha strategies Persuade by increasing approach forces Omega strategies

Persuade by decreasing avoidance forces When approach forces are greater than avoidance forces movement toward goal Alpha Strategies Make messages more persuasive Strong arguments that compel action Add incentives Increase source credibility Provide consensus information

Resisting Persuasion Attitude Inoculation When people resist persuasion, they become more confident in their initial attitudes Advance warning of a persuasive message Negative attitude change Boomerang effect Stockpile resources Defenses Against Techniques

Commitment and Consistency Reexamine the sense of obligation Reciprocation Evaluate favors or concessions to avoid guilt over lack of reciprocity Defenses Against Techniques Scarcity

Recognize psychological reactance as a signal to think rationally Evaluate the reason we want the item Capturing and Disrupting Attention Stop and think before action Social Proof Recognize fake social proofs

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