Chapter 12 ~ Social Behavior - Napa Valley College

Chapter 12 ~ Social Behavior Social psychology = concerned w/ way individuals thoughts, feelings, & behaviors are influenced by others

PERSON PERCEPTION: FORMING IMPRESSIONS OF OTHERS person perception = process of forming impressions of others Effects of Physical Appearance Halo

Effect = People tend to attribute desirable characteristics, such as intelligence, competence, & warmth, to those who are goodlooking. Effects of Physical Appearance

Observers can draw surprisingly accurate inferences based on others nonverbal expressiveness. Stereotypes Stereotypes

= widely held beliefs that others will have certain characteristics because of their membership in a specific group. Broad overgeneralizations that foster inaccurate perceptions of people. Subjectivity in Person

Perception In interacting with others, people tend to see what they expect to see. Illusory correlation effect = tend

to overestimate how often their expectations are confirmed. An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person Perception tendency to automatically

categorize others into ingroups and outgroups may reflect the primitive need to quickly separate friend from foe. Attributions = inferences people draw about causes of events, others behavior, & their own behavior. ATTRIBUTION

PROCESSES: EXPLAINING BEHAVIOR Internal Versus External Attributions Internal attributions ascribe

the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, & feelings. Internal Versus External Attributions External attributions ascribe

the causes of behavior to situational demands & environmental constraints. Attributions for Success & Failure Weiners model = attributions for

success & failure should be analyzed in terms of stability of causes, & along internal-external dimension Attributions for Success & Failure Yielding 4 possible types of

attributions: internal-stable, internal-unstable, external-stable, & external-unstable Bias in Attribution Fundamental attribution error = observers bias in

favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior. An Alternative View of the Fundamental Attribution Error 2-step model of attribution = people

tend to automatically make internal attributions w/ little effort, Then may expend additional effort to adjust for influence of situational factors, which can lead to an external attribution.

Self-serving bias = tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors & ones failures to situational factors Culture & Attributions Western

Cultures Individualism = putting personal goals ahead of group goals & defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than

group memberships. Culture & Attributions ~ Eastern Cultures Collectivism = putting group goals ahead of personal goals & defining ones identity in terms of

groups one belongs to Culture & Attributions ~ Eastern Cultures self-effacing bias = attribute successes to help they receive from others or to ease of task,

while downplaying the importance of their ability. Interpersonal attraction = positive feelings toward another person INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION: LIKING & LOVING

Key Factors in Attraction Physical Attractiveness = People tend to like & love others who are physically attractive. Key Factors in Attraction Matching

hypothesis = people similar in physical attractiveness are more likely to be drawn together than those who are not. Key Factors in Attraction Similarity

Effects Research suggests that similarity causes attraction, although attitude alignment may also be at work. Key Factors in Attraction Reciprocity, which involves liking

those who show that they like you, fosters attraction. Perspectives on the Mystery of Love Passionate love = complete

absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings & the agony & ecstasy of intense emotion. Companionate love = warm, trusting, tolerant affection for

another whose life is deeply intertwined with ones own. Love as Attachment Hazan & Shavers theory = love relationships in adulthood mimic attachment patterns in infancy.

Those who are secure tend to have more-committed, satisfying relationships. Attachment & Romantic Relationships

Culture & Close Relationships Characteristics people seek in prospective mates are much the same around the world. However, cultures vary in their emphasis on

passionate love as a prerequisite for marriage. Eastern cultures downplay role of passionate love preferring companionate love. The Internet & Close Relationships

Internet-initiated relationships appear to be just as intimate & stable as relationships forged offline. An Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction

certain aspects of good looks, such as facial symmetry, influence attraction because they are indicators of reproductive fitness. An Evolutionary Perspective

on Attraction men tend to seek youthfulness & attractiveness in their mates women emphasize prospective

mates social status & financial potential. Attitudes = positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought ATTITUDES: MAKING SOCIAL JUDGMENTS Components & Dimensions of

Attitudes Attitudes may be made up of cognitive, affective, & behavioral components. cognitive = beliefs Affective = emotional feelings behavioral = predispositions to act in

certain ways Components & Dimensions of Attitudes Attitudes also vary along three dimensions: strength

accessibility ambivalence Components & Dimensions of Attitudes Attitudes & behavior not as consistent as assumed, for a

variety of reasons, including situational pressures. Implicit Attitudes: Looking Beneath the Surface Explicit attitudes = one holds consciously & can readily

describe Implicit attitudes = covert attitudes expressed in subtle automatic responses over which one has little conscious Implicit

attitudes measured by testing how quickly people associate carefully chosen pairs of concepts. Research w/ IAT suggests most

people harbor covert prejudices, which affect overt behavior. Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors in Persuasion A source of persuasion who is credible, expert, trustworthy, likable,

& similar tends to be effective in stimulating attitude change. 2-sided arguments & fear arousal are effective elements in persuasive messages w/in situational limitations. Trying to Change Attitudes:

Factors in Persuasion Repetition of message is helpful, perhaps because of mere exposure effect. Persuasion is more difficult when

a receiver is forewarned & when strong attitudes are targeted. Overview of the Persuasion Process Theories of Attitude Formation & Change Attitudes

may be shaped through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Cognitive Dissonance Festingers dissonance theory =

inconsistencies between behavior & attitudes cause tension and that people alter their attitudes or behavior to reduce cognitive dissonance. Dissonance theory has been used to explain attitude change following counterattitudinal behavior and efforts that havent panned out.

Routes to Persuasion central route to persuasion = depends on the logic of persuasive messages, tends to yield longer-lasting attitude change peripheral route = depends on superficial interests such as

celebrity endorsement, short term attitude change The Elaboration Likelihood Model CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE: YIELDING TO OTHERS Conformity

Conformity = when people yield to real or imagined social pressure. Asch Experiement Asch found that subjects often

conform to the group, even when the group reports inaccurate judgments on a simple linejudging task. Asch Experiement Conformity becomes more likely as group size increases, up to a group size of seven, then levels

off. If a small group isnt unanimous, conformity declines rapidly. Obedience Obedience = form of compliance that occurs when people follow

direct commands, usually from someone in position of authority. Milgram Experiment Milgrams study of obedience to authority, participants showed a remarkable tendency, despite their misgivings, to

follow orders to shock innocent stranger. Milgram concluded that situational pressures can make decent people do indecent things. Cultural Variations in Conformity and Obedience

Asch & Milgram experiments have been replicated in many cultures, showing that conformity & obedience are common around the world. Slightly

higher rates of conformity found in collectivist The Power of the Situation: The Stanford Prison Simulation Social roles = widely shared

expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave. The Power of the Situation: The Stanford Prison Simulation Stanford Prison Simulation,

normal, healthy students were randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards demonstrated that social roles & situational pressures can exert great influence over behavior group = 2 or more individuals who interact & are interdependent

BEHAVIOR IN GROUPS: JOINING WITH OTHERS Behavior Alone & in Groups: The Case of the Bystander Effect Bystander effect = the more

people that are around the less likely they are to help someone in need occurs primarily because a group creates diffusion of responsibility Group Productivity & Social Loafing Social

loafing = reduction in effort by individuals when working in groups compared 2 when they work by themselves due to diffusion of responsibility. more prevalent in individualistic cultures.

Decision Making in Groups Group polarization = group discussion strengthens groups dominant point of view & produces shift toward more extreme decision in that direction

Group cohesiveness = strength of liking relationships linking group members to each other & to group itself Groupthink

= when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision Groupthink Reflecting on the Chapters

Themes Prejudice = negative attitude held toward members of a group The Three Potential Components of Prejudice as an Attitude.

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