Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Introduction to Psychology Psychology Is: - The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Try It 1.1 Science or Common Sense
Indicate Whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Once damaged, brain cells never work again. 2. All people dream during a night of normal sleep. 3. As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the time it takes for the victim to get help decreases. 4. Humans do not have a maternal instinct. 5. Its impossible for human beings to hear a watch ticking 20 feet away. 6. Eyewitness testimony is unreliable.
7. Chimpanzees have been taught to speak. 8. Creativity and high intelligence do not necessarily go together. 9. When it comes to close personal relationships, opposites attract. 10. The majority of teenagers have good relationships with their parents. 1. WWB Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006 Goals of Psychology
Describe Explain Predict Control behaviorial and mental processes From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed Prior to 1879 Physiologists and philosophers studying questions about the mind Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University
of Leipzig, Germany Campaigned to make psychology an independent discipline Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879 Psychology was born Structuralism First formal school of thought in psychology Edward Titchner
The task of psychology is to investigate the basic elements of the conscious mind and examine how these elements are related. introspection The Battle of the Schools Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism Structuralism Edward Titchener Analyze consciousness into basic elements Introspection Careful, systematic observations of ones own conscious experience Functionalism William James
Investigate function of consciousness Led to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, and sex differences Functionalism An early school of psychology concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environment. William James: first American psychologist Behaviorism Views observable, measurable behavior as
the appropriate subject matter. Emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior. Helped establish psychology as a science. Founded by John Watson B. F. Skinner Ivan Pavlov (18491936) John B. Watson (18781958) B. F. Skinner (19041990)
Three Key Scientists in the Development of Behaviorism Building on the pioneering research of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, American psychologist John B. Watson founded the school of behaviorism. Behaviorism advocated that psychology should study observable behaviors, not mental processes. Following Watson, B. F. Skinner continued to champion the ideas of behaviorism. Skinner became one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Like Watson, he strongly advocated the study of observable behaviors rather than mental processes. Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology John B. Watson (1878-1958): United States Founder of Behaviorism
Psychology = scientific study of behavior Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior Study of consciousness abandoned Nurture, not nature
John Watson and the Nature-Nurture Debate give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief Behaviorist school of thought emphasized
the environment (nurture) Are people free? B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): United States Environmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated Beyond Freedom and Dignity More controversy regarding free will
Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Austria Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior Unconscious = outside awareness Freuds Ideas: Controversy and Influence Behavior is influenced by the unconscious Unconscious conflict related to sexuality
plays a central role in behavior Controversial notions caused debate/resistance Significant influence on the field of psychology The 1950s: Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism Charges that both were de-humanizing Diverse opposition groups got together to form a loose alliance A new school of thought emerged Humanism
Led by Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Optimistic Emphasis on the unique qualities of humans: freedom and personal growth Studying Psychology: Seven Unifying Themes Psychology as a field of study:
Empirical Theoretically diverse Evolves in sociohistorical context Behavior: Determined by multiple causes Shaped by cultural heritage Influenced jointly by heredity and environment Peoples experience of the world is highly subjective. Renewed Interest in Physiology and Cognition
Cognition = mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Application of scientific methods to studying internal mental events Biological perspective - behavior explained in terms of physiological processes Evolutionary Psychology: Human Adaptations
Central premise: natural selection occurs for behavioral, as well as physical, characteristics Buss, Daly & Wilson, Cosmides & Tooby 1980s and 1990s Studied natural selection of mating preferences, jealousy, aggression, sexual behavior, language, decision making, personality, and development Thought provoking perspective gaining in
influence, but not without criticism The Evolutionary Perspective The evolutionary perspective analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species chances to survive and reproduce. Comparing behaviors across species can often lead to new insights about the adaptive function of a particular behavior. For example, humans, monkeys, and apes are all members of the primate family. Close bonds with caregivers are essential to the primate infants survivalwhether that infant is a golden monkey at a wildlife preserve in northern China or a human infant at a family picnic in Norway. As youll see in later chapters, the evolutionary perspective has been applied to many different areas of psychology, including human relationships, mate selection, eating behavior, and emotional responses (Caporael, 2001). Sociocultural approach
View that the cultural and social factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processes. Cultural Psychology: Recognizing Human Variation Ethnocentrism viewing ones own group as superior and as the standard for judging Historically: middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class
white males 1980s increased interest in how cultural factors influence behavior Growing global interdependence Increased cultural diversity Positive Psychology Martin Seligmans epiphany Humanist concerns revisited Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence Positive subjective experiences
Positive individual traits Positive institutions and communities Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession Applied psychology Clinical psychology World War II Clinical psychology receives institutional support Perspectives Perspective is a way of viewing
phenomena Psychology has multiple perspectives Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Positive Psychology Cognitive Cross-Cultural Evolutionary 4.2% Elementary and
Secondary Schools 6.3% Business and Government 8.5% Other 19.4% Hospitals and Clinics 28.0% Colleges and Universities 33.6% Private Practice How Psychology Developed
Psychology Today Seven Unifying Themes Personal Application 0.5% Forensic 0.6% Other
0.9% Clinical Neuropsychology 5.2% School 6.1% Industrial/Organizational 14.7% Counseling 72.1% Clinical How Psychology Developed
Psychology Today Seven Unifying Themes Personal Application Figure 1.5 Membership in the American Psychological Association, 19002004
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RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability When a test is reliable, it provides dependable, consistent results and, for this reason, the term consistency is often given as a synonym for reliability (e.g., Anastasi, 1988).
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