Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Engineering, Exergy and Inovation Prof. Dr. Yunus engel Adnan Menderes niversitesi Mhendislik Fakltesi Eitim, Exerji, ve novasyon: Nasl Badar? Kaynaklarn en rasyonel ekilde kullanlmas, srafn sfrlanmas Girdi yerine kt-odakl olunmas,

Belli bir girdiden en yksek ktnn alnmaya allmas (Referans - Dnya uygulamalar) Kurumlarn ve kiilerin kazanmlarnn maximize edilmesi. LSE ETM: IKTILARI (KAZANIMLARI) NEDR? Soru: Ortaretimin gayesi rencilerin niversite kaps nnde en adil ekilde sralanmasn temin etmek midir? Yoksa belli temel becerileri kazandrarak hayata hazrlamak mdr? SYM bu becerilerden hangilerini lyor? Lise mezunlarnn sahip olduu bilgi, beceri, ve yetkinlikler nelerdir? Yeni bir lise mezunu hayatta ne kadar fonksiyonel olabilir? Eitimde Paradigma Kaymas: GRD IKTI, BLG BECER, OKUL GEREK HAYAT

OECD 2012 Raporu: 15 ya grubunun fen ve matematik bilgilerini gerek hayata uygulama arlkl son PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) snavnda Trk rencilerin (Fen-Anadolu lisesi rencileri dahil) sadece %1i stn performans grubunda yer ald (OECD ortalamas: 9%). Lise Mezunlar Hangi Hayat Becerilerine Sahip? 2013de niversiteye girmek iin bavuran 1 milyon 925 bin adaydan 800 bini meslek liseleri dahil muhtelif liselerde son snf rencisidir. Bunlarn 191 bini lisans, 165 bini nlisans ve 39 bini de akretim olmak zere toplam 395 bini (800 binin yaklak %50si) niversiteye yerlemitir. Geriye kalan 405 bin yeni lise mezunu acaba hayata hazr mdr?Kendilerine temel hayat becerileri (8 Anahtar yetkinlik gibi) kazandrlm mdr? Bu 405 bin yeni mezunun byk ounluunun niversiteye girmeye ynelik Akademik amala eitim veren genel veya Anadolu lisesi mezunu olduklar

ve en byk becerilerinin Akademik kanularda test sorusu zmek olduu dikkate alnrsa, gayet aktr ki 18 yandaki bu genler kendilerini hayatta baarl klacak bir beceriye sahip deildir ve hayata girmeye hazr deildir. Hayata girmeye hazr olmayan bu rencilerin niversiteye ynelmek ve bir seneyi dershanelerde test zerek geirmek durumundadr. Ancak bunlarn yaklak yars takip eden yl bir lisans, nlisans veya ak retime yerleecek, kalanlarn gerek hayata girmesi daha da gecikip zorlaacaktr. niversite snavna giren adaylarn 375 bini niversite rencisidir. Bunlarn 94 bini (%25i) yeni bir programa yerletirilmitir. Yani niversitelere nceki yllarda girenlerden en az 375 bini istemedikleri blmlerde okumaktadr. 8 Anahtar Yetkinlik (Temel Yetkinlikler) (Avrupa Parlamentosu AP, 2006) (Kiisel tatmin/geliim, toplumsal kabul/sosyal katlm, aktif vatandalk ve istihdam iin gerekli bilgi, beceri, ve davran sepeti) 1- Anadilde iletiim,

2- Yabanc dillerde iletiim, 3- Matematikte yetkinlik ile bilim ve teknolojide temel yetkinlikler, 4- Dijital yetkinlik (biliim/iletiim teknolojilerini etkin kullanma), 5- renmesini renme, 6- Sosyal ve medeni yetkinlikler (demokrasi, kiisel haklar, vs), 7- Girikenlik ve giriimcilik (yaratclk, inovasyon, etiklik, liderlik) 8- Kltrel farkndalk ve ifade. Bu anahtar yetkinlikler birbirine baldr, ve vurgu, kritik dnce, yaratclk, girikenlik, problem zme, rizk irdelemesi, karar alma, ve duygular yapc bir ekilde ynetmektedir 2025 Mezunlar: Bilgiden ziyade Beceri ne kan ada gr, beeri bilimlerde bile, genel bilgi edinmeden ziyade aktif/etgen olmaya vurgu yapar:

- Aktif dnce, - Aktif ifade, - Hayatboyu renmeye aktif hazrlk. Bir metin veya soruya angaje olma, verileri ve mzakereleri tasnif etme ve kendini ifade etme, genel bilgi edinmeden nde gelir. 26 Eyll 2013 http://nation.time.com/2013/09/26/the-class-of-2025/ Aratrma: verenlerin yars yetkin yeni niversite mezunu bulmakta zorlandklarn ifade etmektedir. in Eitim Sistemi Test etme Sistemini Terkediyor

Testlere olan yaygn ihtiras: grencilerin drt ba mamur insan olarak geliimini ciddi ekilde engeller, salkl bymelerini nler, rencilerde sosyal sorumluluk, yaratc ruh ve pratik beceriler gelitirme frsatlarn snrlar. Ayn zamanda, gerek hayat zorluklaryla yzlemeye hazrlksz, sosyallii yetersiz genler yetitirir. in eitim sistemi, ocuklar bilgisayar veya robotlar gibi kesin bilgileri ileme kapasitesi yksek alkan rencilere dntrr. Onlara bir soru verin, cevab bulacaklardr. Ama, iyi bir soru soramazlar. (New York Times, Sep. 3, 2013) http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/03/science/chinese-educators-look-to-american-classrooms.html?_r=0 YK 2006 Raporu:

Trkiyenin Yksekretim Stratejisi oktan semeli sorular ile rencilerin analiz, sentez ve deerlendirme yapabilme yeteneklerini lmek son derece zorlamaktadr. Ayrca, adaylarn kendilerini szl ve yazl olarak ifade etme becerilerinin llmesi gerekletirilememektedir. SS, ortaretimde snav ama, eitimi ara durumuna getirmitir. Mfredat d okuma, sosyal ve teki uralar, deiik faaliyet ve projelere katlm, niversiteye giri snav asndan bir zaman kayb olarak grlmektedir. Sistem, kendini ifade etmede zorlanan, sorun zme becerisi yeterince gelimemi, sosyal etkinlik deneyimi olmayan, toplumdan kopuk, bir lise mezunu profilinin yetimesine yol amaktadr. Snava odaklanan eitim srecinin bir baka yansmas da, dorudan adaylarn ruh sal zerindeki olumsuz etkisi ile ilgilidir. Adaylarn, snav sonucunda bir yere yerleememe kayglar, gelecek

iin karamsar olmalarna, onlarn ve ailelerinin yaamlarnda iz brakacak byklkte sorunlara yol aabilmektedir. ETM AACI: IKTI (MEYVE) ODAKLI YAKLAIM Benzer aalar birbirinden ayran, meyveleridir. Portakal? Limon? Mandalin? (Aalar ok benziyor) Nasl bir eitim program, istenen vasflarda mhendisi meyve verir?

Nasl bir Mhendislik Eitimi? = Nasl bir Mhendis? MHENDSLK NEDR? MHENDSLK = novasyon (Yenilik) MHENDSLK: DEM ve GELM Dnya hzla deiiyor. nsanlar daha iyisini istiyor. Bu deiimin motoru bilim ve teknolojidir. Dnyada dinamizm esastr, ve deimiyecek tek ey deiimdir.

Deien bir ortamda yerinde duran geride kalr ve geriye gider. Deiim durdurulamaz, ancak ynlendirilebilir. DEM: TEMEL BR NSANLIK HASYET nsan DEEN bir varlktr. Deiime itiraz, insanla itiraz ve insanl inkardr. NSAN

Akll Konuan Sosyal Ekonomik DEEN BR VARLIKTIR. (NSAN-HAYVAN FARKI) Mhendislik: Zevkli bir meslek Duraan meyil ve kabiliyetlerin harekete geirilip meyve vermesi bir hazdr.

HAYAL GC: DEMN ATLYES nsan HAYAL EDEN bir varlktr. nsan, hayalleri kadar byktr. nsann zellii, olmayan eyleri hayal aleminde var etmektir. Hayal gc veya yaratclk, inovasyonun temelini olusturur. Hayal alemindeki eyleri fizik (madde) aleminde var etmek, bilgi ve beceri ile olur.

Hayvanlar igdleri, insanlar ise hayalleri ile hareket ederler. Einstein: Hayal etme, bilgiden daha nemlidir. MHENDSLK RNLERNN GRDLER BR MHENDSLK HARKASI UYDU = Madde {bakr, demir, plastik, ...} + Madde-d {hayal gc (yaratclk), bilgi (teknoloji), beceri, ...} TURKSAT 4A ve 4B Mitsubishi Electric, Japonya 2013 ve 2014

Toplam arlk ve fiat: 7700 kg $571 milyon Birim fiat: $74,000/kg Hammadde deeri: $10/kg? http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/id/25229518/ BEYN GC ve BEYN G Bilgi anda en byk g bilgiyle

donanm eitimli beyin gcdr. lkelerin zenginlikleri artk sahip olduklar doal kaynaklar ve sanayi retimlerinden ziyade toplam beyin gleriyle llyor. ABDde yabanc gmenler Silikon Vadisindeki firmalarn %52sini kurdular, ve milyonlarca istihdam yarattlar. In the U.S. immigrants have founded 52 percent of Silicon Valleys companies

and created millions of jobs. ( Vivek Wadhwa, Washington Post, Oct. 4, 2011). YK: niversitelerde yabanc retim eleman %2yi geemez. MHENDSLK, MMARLIK, SANATKARLIK: HAYAL GC ve YARATICI DNCE MHENDS, TEKNOLOJST, TEKNSYEN Mhendis, Mimar, Sanatkar: Bilgi-hayal-ilham (6. his) ile yapma (CD, izim)

Maddesiz inaat, hayal-bilgi-zihin becerisi (yaratclk). (Basic Science + Applied Science + Design) Beyaz Yakal Mhendis Teknolojist (Teknoloji Mhendisi) Tasarm mhendisi ile teknisyen arasndaki kpr; retim alannda uygulama mhendisi. Mavi Yakal Mhendis (Basic Science + Applied Science+ Eng. Applications) Teknisyen, Usta: El becerisi ile malzemeyi istenilen ekle sokma Madde ile yapma, ruha uygun beden giydirme

sanat, otomasyon, - robot). (Skill) (Beceri, Kaynak: Middlesex County College, New Jersey, USA; www.middlesexcc.edu Klasik Eitim - Yaratc Dnce In Asia, the students often have test scores that soar beyond those of their counterparts in the West. However, much of that learning is book learning and rote memorization, which will take you only to a certain level.

To reach the higher levels of science and technology, you need creativity, imagination, and innovation, which the Eastern system does not nurture. (Michio Kaku, Physics of the Future, Doubleday, New York, 2011, p. 323). MHENDSLK: Dinamik Bir Meslek Teknoloji: - G, - Zenginlik,

- Refah. Toplumun daha iyiye olan talep Deiim arzusu Teknoloji, meslek Mhendislik Uygulamas yaratmada etkisine Gelecein mhendisi profili sahiptir. Mhendisliin z Mhendislik Eitimi

DEM Mhendislik Eitimi DNAMK EVRE NOVASYON: Yeni bir RN, Yeni bir PROSES, Yeni bir MODEL (Business Model), Yeni bir HZMET IEEE: 2040da Aralarn %75i Sfrsz Olacak

General Motors' Cadillac division expects to produce partially autonomous cars at a large scale by 2015, and the automaker also predicts it will have fully autonomous cars available by the end of the decade. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently released predictions that autonomous cars will account for up to 75 percent of vehicles on the road by 2040. IEEE went even further, forecasting how infrastructure, society and attitudes could change when self-driving cars become the norm around the middle of the century." Source: http://www.wired.com/autopia/ 2012/09/ieee-autonomous-2040/ 18 Eyll 2012 Incremental Innovation:

Gearless Wind Turbines Transformative Innovation (makes old technology obsolete): Wind Turbines with no blades 3 April 2013 Dutch researchers have created a bladeless wind turbine with no moving parts that produces electricity using charged water droplets." the Electrostatic WInd Energy CONverter "creates electrical energy directly from wind energy.

It does this through the displacement of charged particles by the wind in the opposite direction of an electrical field." The technology was created by Delft University of Technology. A scale model of the Ewicon has been developed by Mecanoo Architects and is located in front of the faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science at Delft University of Technology.". Source: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-04/3/bladeless-wind-turbine-ewicon Relative Cost of Power Generation ($/1000 kWh) http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/GWEC-Global-Wind-Report_9-April-2014.pdf NOVASYON:

Yeni bir RN, Yeni bir PROSES, Yeni bir MODEL (Business Model), Yeni bir HZMET Ucuz ve Kirli Kmrden Temiz Doal Gaz (in) http://blogs.forbes.com/robertlenzner/2011/03/31/synthesis-energy-systems-will-turn-dirty-coal-into-clean-natural-gas/ SolarCity: Yeni bir MODEL (Business Model) There were more solar panels installed in the U.S. over the last 18 months than the last 30 years. NRG Energy wants to be as big or bigger than SolarCity in its residential solar financing and installation business, like that SolarCity founded in 2006. 2000 MW of solar power will be deployed by the end of 2014. SolarCity went public in 2012 at $9.25 per share; now trading at about $50 per share.

SolarCity provides the upfront financing for the solar system; the customer doesnt have to put any money for the panels. Instead of paying 10s of thousands of dollars for a solar panel system, customer pays SolarCity for the cost of the solar energy monthly. 16 May 2014 http://gigaom.com/2014/05/16/as-solar-panels-boom-it-was-the-simple-business-model-that-the-big-energy-players-missed/ Solar PV: Exponential Growth (137,000 MW) Global solar PV capacity grew by 37,000 MW to 136,700 MW at end of 2013 [Wind: 318,000 MW, (35,000 new). China: 91, US: 61, Germany: 34 GW)]

Japan (6,900 MW),d China (11,300 MW), U.S. (4,700 MW) lead the charge. PV produces 3% of electricity (wind 8%) in Europe and 6% of peak demand. 6 MW of PV = 1 MW of Nuclear or Coal plant ( = 3 MW of wind). 1 kW of PV produces about 1100 kWh/year (1 kW of wind: 2200 kWh/year) http://www.epia.org/index.php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl&u=0&file=/uploads/tx_epiapublications/ Istanbul Trafik Tkanklnn Maliyeti: $2 Milyar/yl NOVASYON: Yeni bir RN, Yeni bir PROSES, Yeni bir MODEL (Business Model), Yeni bir HZMET Service Innovation (alternative to sell SONGs): iTunes Music Store by Steve Jobs (April 28, 2003)

iTunes Store, 2003 - 2013: 25 billion songs sold 40 billion downloads In 2003, the shift to digital music had started. But no solutions existed for users to drop their CDs and pay for mp3s. It was a complex world of digital right management and limited online music portfolios. 28 April 2003 Apple launches the iTunes Music Store with 200,000 songs at 99 each (after 1 year, it offered over 1 million songs).

Over 1 million songs are sold the first week. It changed the music industry and the way people get their music forever. http://everystevejobsvideo.com/a-decade-of-itunes-store/ Innovation in Software: Facebook (A new service) "Facebook Class" Helped Pioneer Lean Start-Up Model New York Times (May 7, 2011) reported on the "Facebook Class," a class of Stanford students in 2007 who were asked to design and market a Facebook app.

Some of the projects were wildly successful and "almost overnight, the Facebook Class fired up the careers and fortunes of more than two dozen students and teachers." The class "also helped to pioneer a new model of entrepreneurship that has upturned the tech establishment: the lean start-up." Students learned, among other things, to keep their ideas simple and expedient, while venture capitalists began designing funds designed for this low-cost approach.

Working in teams of three, the 75 students created apps that collectively had 16 million users in just 10 weeks. Many of those apps were sort of silly: Mr. De Lombaerts, for example, allowed users to send hotness points to Facebook friends. Yet during the term, the apps, free for users, generated roughly $1 million in advertising revenue. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/08/technology/08class.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Dkkan yeniden tanmlamak (Yeni bir MODEL): Amazon.com - Dnyann en byk AVMsi (E-commerce) Founded: 1994 (Seattle, USA)

Products: Online retailing, Kindle, Revenue (2013): $75 billion Employees: 117,000 Sales: The World Trkiyenin En Byk ieksiz iekisi: iek Sepeti hrac rn Olarak Eitim (ABD) ABD, 2012-2013 Academik yl: 820,000 yabanc niversite rencisi, $23 milyar/yl China, India and S. Korea account for nearly half of 820,000 foreign students in US. University of Southern California, Purdue had over 9000 international students. Americans studying abroad was 283,000 (nearly 60% of them studied in summer or < 8-weeks). The UK hosted the most with 34,660, followed by Italy, Spain and France.

China continues to send the most students to the USA, including 235,597 last year. Source: The Institute of International Education, 2012-13 data Veronica Bravo and Glen O'Neal, USA TODAY http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/11/11/international-students-and-study-abroad/3442733/ Brezilya: 101,000 renciyi Yurtdna Eitime Gnderiyor Source: http://in.reuters.com/article/2012/08/28/us-usa-brazil-education-idINBRE87R0ZX20120828 EdX: Top niversitelerden cretsiz Dersler https://www.edx.org/ 30 Nov 2013 niversite Eitiminde Hayatboyu renmeye Dayal Son Nokta:

Derssiz, Kazanlan Yetkinliklere Dayal Lisans Diplomas Some schools already offer competency-based credits or associate degrees in areas such as nursing and business. Wall Street Journal, Jan. 24, 2013 Unlike MOOC companies such as Coursera, edX and Udacity, University of Wisconsin Systems visionary Flexible Option Program offers competencybased bachelor's degrees based on online tests to establish knowledge. No classroom time is required under the UW Flexible Option program, except for clinical or practicum work for certain degrees. It decouples learning part of education from student assessment and degree-granting. Under the Flexible Option, assessment tests and related online courses are being written by faculty who normally teach the related subject-area classes. The cost is expected to be significantly less than full-time resident tuition. The university and the state are doing this to strengthen the state work force. The program is viewed as a "worthy experiment" but school officials need to make sure degree plans are not watered down. The degree will be indistinguishable from those issued the traditional way.

http://professional.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323301104578255992379228564.html?mod=ITP_pageone_1&mg=reno64- hrac rn Olarak Salk: $20 milyar/yl (2023) Kaynak: http://www.aksam.com.tr/yabancilar-sifa-icin-geliyor-yilda-1-milyar-lira-birakiyor--146684h.html YYECEKTE NOVASYON: KFC World's largest chain of fried chicken restaurants. 2nd largest restaurant chain after McDonaldss. Founder Colonel Harland Sanders first gave the world a taste of his most famous creation,

Original Recipe Kentucky Fried Chicken, featuring a secret blend of 11 herbs and spices. After a lot of experimenting in 1939 with a pressure cooker by varying cooking time, pressure, shortening temperature and level, he developed a process to fry chicken quickly under pressure with great taste. Founded: 1930 in Kentucky by Harland Sanders Franchise: 1952, Utah Number of locations: 17,000 in 105 countries Employees: 455,000 (2010) Revenue: US$ 9.2 billion (2011) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KFC

Hayal Gc ve Yaratc Dnce (Hayal Alemi): Bilim-Kurgu, TV Dizileri (ihrac rn, $200 milyon/yil) MHENDS KMDR? MHENDSLKTE ALTIN STANDART: ABET 2000 Kriterleri (~MDEK Program ktlar) 1. Matematik, fen ve mhendislik bilgilerini uygulayabilme becerisi 2. Deney tasarlama ve deney yapma ile birlikte verileri analiz etme ve yorumlayabilme becerisi 3. Bir sistem, cihaz ve prosesi ihtiyalar karlayacak ekilde tasarlayabilme becerisi 4. Multi-disipliner takmlarda etkin/verimli bir ekilde alabilme becerisi 5. Mhendislik problemlerini tanmlama, formle etme, ve zme becerisi

6. Profesyonel ve etik sorumluluklar konusunda farkndalk sahibi olma 7. Etkin bir ekilde iletiim kurma becerisi 8. Mhendislik zmlerinin global ve toplumsal boyutlardaki etkileri hakknda anlay sahibi olmak iin gerekli genel eitim alm olma 9. Hayat boyu renmenin gereklilii konusunda anlay sahibi olma ve hayat boyu renme becerisini edinmi olma 10. ada sorunlar hakknda bilgi sahibi olma, 11. Mhendislik pratii iin gerekli olan teknikleri, yetkinlikleri ve modern mhendislik aralarn kullanma becerisi. Piyasa Perspektifi: Baarl Mhendislerin 10 zellii (Mhendislik mesleinde ykselebilmek iin, bir mhendislik mezununun sahip olmas gereken 10 zellik) 1.Bilgi edinme ve edindii bilgiyi uygulama becerisi

2.Teknik beceri ve yetkinlik 3.Problem zme becerisi 4.Tasarm yapma yetkinlii 5.Etik ve profesyonel davranma 6.yi iletiim becerisi 7.Takm oyuncusu olma 8.Resmin tamamn grme becerisi (kresel, ekonomik, evresel, sosyal ynler) 9.Hayat boyu renmeye ak olma 10. hayatnda fonksiyonel olabilme. From CourseNOW! magazine, engineering issue 10,2006 Tarihi Perspektif (1922): stdzey Ynetici Mhendislerin 14 Temel zellii 1. Akl Selim Salam muhakeme becerisi, doru akl yrtme, isabetli karar verme, 2. Girikenlik Kvrak zekallk, hayal gc, orijinallik, bamsz dnce,

3. Erdem Doru szllk, drstlk, samimiyet, 4. Organizatrlk Sistematize etme, planlama, grev/sorumluluklar astlara aktarma, 5. Salk Bedenen zindelik (iyi grme, iitme, vsl). 6. Sebat alkanlk, hrs, odaklanma, konsantre olma. 7. Agresiflik Enerjik olma, cesaret, kararllk. 8. Ak fikirlilik Makul olma, yeni fikirlere ak olma. 9. birlii (birlikte alma) kendini beenmemilik, neelilik, ince dncelik, sadakat 10. Rekabetilik Yarmac zel sektr yaklamn benimseme 11. Hislerine hakimlik Alnganlk veya ani fkelenmelerden uzak olma. 12. Kltrllk (rafine karekter) Sayg, nezaket, iyi hal ve davran, genel kltr 13. D grnm Bakmllk, k grnm, ho yz ifadesi, From February 1922 issue of Professional Engineer 14. Esprili olma Mizah anlay, akadan anlama, latife yapma Tarihi Perspektif (1922):

stdzey Ynetici Mhendislerin 14 Temel zellii 1. Judgment Reasoning ability, accuracy in conclusions, 2. Initiative Alertness, imagination, originality, independence in thinking. 3. Integrity Truthfulness, honesty, sincerity. 4. Organizing Ability Systematizing, planning and delegating, 5. Health Bodily vigor, good sight, hearing, etc., included. 6. Perseverance Industry, ambition, concentration. 7. Aggressiveness Energy, courage, domination of will. 8. Open-Mindedness Reasonableness, openness to new ideas. 9. Co-Operativeness Unselfishness, kindness, cheerfulness, tact, loyalty. 10. Competitiveness Interest in playing the business game. 11. Control of Emotions Freedom from outbursts of anger or touchiness. 12. Refinement Courtesy, manners, general culture. 13. Appearance Well-groomed appearance, pleasing facial expressions, 14. Sense of Humor

From February 1922 issue of Professional Engineer Steve Jobs bir Mhendis midir? Steve Jobs, a college dropout, co-founded Apple Computer in 1976 when he was 21 and, with his childhood friend Steve Wozniak, marketed what was considered the world's first personal computer, the Apple II. (IBM introduced its PC in 1984). In 2007, he transformed the cell phone. Apple's iPhone, with its iconic touch screen, was a handheld computer, music player, messaging device, digital wallet and almost incidentally cell phone. Steve Jobs: Bir Teknoloji Lideri (7 Ekim 2011, Gazeteler) APPLE: Apple bir vizyoner ve yaratc bir deha kaybetmitir.

APPLE: Stevein parlak zekas, tutkusu, ve enerjisi hepimizin hayatn zenginletiren ve gelitiren saysz yeniliin kayna olmutur. ABD Bakan Barack Obama: Jobs'un "Amerika'nn en byk yenilikilerinden biri" olduunu belirten Obama, Jobs'un "farkl dnecek kadar cesur, dnyay deitirebileceine inanacak kadar pervasz ve bunu yapabilecek kadar yetenekli olduunu" kaydetti. Avustralya Babakan Julia Gillard: Onun yaratc dehasnn dnyay

deitirdiini" syledi. Meksika Devlet Bakan Felipe Calderon: Dnya, ann hayal gc en yksek akllarndan birini kaybetti" dedi. Samsung: Steve Jobs'un, sonsuza kadar hatrlanacak "yeniliki bir ruh" olduunu aklad. Jobs'un, "enformasyon teknolojisi endstrisini, devrim nitelii tayan saysz deiiklikle tantrd" belirtildi. News Corporation CEO'su Rupert Murdoch: amzn en ilham verici

dnrn, yaratcsn ve giriimcisini kaybettik diye konutu. Milli Gelir retiminde BR LKE ve BR K Syria (185,200 km2; 23 million) GDP in 2010: $60 billion ($2800 per capita) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syria Steve Jobs (1955-2011) (Son of a Syrian father + US mother) Apple: $109 billion revenue in 2011) Apple is the most valuable publicly traded firm in the world ($550 billion)

Question: What if Steve Jobs were raised in Syria instead of the US? Character Strength via Behavior (Roadmap) 1. CANLILIK, HAYAT DOLU OLMA (ZEST) - approaching life with excitement and energy; feeling alive and activated Actively participates Shows enthusiasm Invigorates others 2. DSPLN, SORUMLULUK (SELF-CONTROL) - regulating what one feels and does; being self-disciplined School Work o Comes to class prepared o Pays attention and resists distractions

o Remembers and follows directions o Gets to work right away rather than procrastinating Interpersonal o Remains calm even when criticized or otherwise provoked o Allows others to speak without interruption o Is polite to adults and peers o Keeps temper in check 3. KR, MEMNUNYET (GRATITUDE) - being aware of and thankful for opportunities that one has and for good things that happen Recognizes and shows appreciation for others Recognizes and shows appreciation for his/her opportunities Character Strength via Behavior (Roadmap) (2) 4. MERAK (CURIOSITY)- taking an interest in experience and learning new things for its own sake; finding things fascinating.

Is eager to explore new things; Actively listens to others Asks and answers questions to deepen understanding 5. YMSERLK, POZTFLK (OPTIMISM) -expecting the best in the future and working to achieve it. Gets over frustrations and setbacks quickly Believes that effort will improve his or her future 6. SEBAT, METANET (GRIT) - finishing what one starts; completing something despite obstacles; a combination of persistence and resilience. Finishes whatever he or she begins Tries very hard even after experiencing failure Works independently with focus 7. SOSYAL ZEKA (SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE) - being aware of motives and feelings of other people and oneself; including the ability to reason

within large and small groups. Able to find solutions during conflicts with others Demonstrates respect for feelings of others http://www.kipp.org/our-approach/character Knows when and how to include others (Knowledge is power program; KIPP foundation) Google ve Samsungdan Sosyal Zeka rnei: Patent Sava yerine Patent Anlamas 28 Ocak 2014 Google ve Samsung, patent savana girimek yerine, patent lisans anlamas yapt. "Bu tr anlamalarla irketler

potansiyel davalar azaltabilir ve yeniliklere odaklanabilir." apraz lisans anlamas: ki veya daha fazla patent sahibi irketin birbirlerine ya da nc bir tarafa lisans verdikleri anlama tr. Anlama, mevcut patentlerle birlikte gelecek 10 yl da kapsyor. Google ve Samsung, birbirlerine ait teknolojileri kullanabilecek. Samsung IP (fikr mlkiyet) Bakan: "Samsung ve Google gstermitir ki anlamsz patent kavgalar yerine yaplan ibirlii anlamalarnn sektre daha fazla getirisi var." http://www.zaman.com.tr/ekonomi_google-ve-samsung-patent-savasina-son-verdi_2196129.html Apple Samsung IP (Fikr Mlkiyet) Savalar: $1 Milyar Ceza 22 kasim 2013

A jury in the US has awarded Apple a multi-million dollar damages payout in a retrial against Samsung. After a one-week trial, a federal court in San Jose, California, awarded the $US290.5 million payout, which was less than the $US379.8 million Apple had requested. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-22/apple-wins-damages-in-samsung-retrial/5110106 In 2012, Apple was awarded more than $US1 billion after it convinced a jury Samsung copied various features of its iPhone, including using fingers to pinch and zoom on the screen and design touches such as the phone's flat, black glass screen. In March 2013, US District Judge upheld about $US600 million of that verdict but ordered a retrial on the rest, ruling the previous jury had

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-22/apple-wins-damages-in-samsung-retrial/5110106 DEEN DNYA: BLG TOPLUMU BLG AI ve BLG TOPLUMU TARIMToplumu: (... 1712, Buhar Makinesinin icad, Newcomen) Meslekler (ziraat, sanatlar) raklkla babadan oula geerdi. Deiim hz: Dk. Gerekli beceriler: Basit SANAY Toplumu: (1712 1948, Tranzistrn icad, Bell Labs) Tarm kalkmad, ancak makineleti. Tarmda rekabetin ls makineleme oldu. i snf dodu, ve ok sayda meslek tredi. Deiim hz: Orta Gerekli Beceriler: Mekanik (robotluk) BLG Toplumu (1948 ...) Sanayi kalkmad, ancak bilgiye dayal hale geldi. Rutin iler robotlara

braklmakta. Sanayide rekabetin ls, gelitirilen yeni bilgi ve teknoloji. Deiim hz: Yksek; rn mr: Ksa; Meslek mr: Ksa Gerekli Beceriler: Karmak ve deiken Sanayi a: Tarmda Eriyen stihdam Oran (ABD) 1900: %35 2000: %2 Tarm istihdamndan eriyen alanlarda alan milyonlarca insan imdi isiz

deil; farkl ancak daha iyi maal ilerde almaya baladlar. Sekreter ve daktilocularn says azalsa da bilgisayar programclarnn ve web tasarmclarnn says artt. ABD imalatndaki istihdam 1950'lerde %30'lardan bugn %10un altna indi. te yandan hizmet sektr istihdam %50'lerin altndan %70'e ykseldi. 19. yzylda tekstil iilerinin, ilerini elinden alan makinelerini paralamas gibi, bilgisayarmz paralayarak bu srecin nne geilemez. Bilgi a: Sanayi a leri, Elektronik Aletlere Uzmanlk gerektirse bile tekrara dayal rutin iler robotlara braklyor

Son 30 ylda da dijital devrim orta yetkinlik gerektiren birok i alann yok etmitir. Daktilocular, bilet acenteleri, banka memurlar ve birok retim hatt iisi, sanayi devriminde dokumac esnaflar gibi yok olmaktadr. Oxford niversitesi Aratrmas (Economist): stihdamn %47'si 20 ylda otomatikleecek Son yllarda dijital giriimlerin artmasyla, Amazon, Facebook, Twitter, Google gibi birok hizmet sunan, ncesinde kimsenin bilmedii, imdi ise kimsenin onsuz yapamad irketler ortaya kt. Popler fotoraf paylam sitesi Instagram, Facebook'a 1 milyar dolara satldnda sadece 13 alan vard. 2013de iflas eden Kodak ise bir zamanlar

145,000 kii istihdam ediyordu. Google bugn 46,000 kii istihdam ediyor. Makineler tarafndan yerinden edilen iler, retim band iilii ve muhasebeci gibi rutin faaliyetler. Kavramsal becerilerin nem arzettii ve makinelerin yerini alamayaca yeni i alanlar imdiden filizlenmektedir. http://www.dunya.com/teknolojik-gelismeler-istihdamin-yuzde-47sini-otomatiklestirebilir-217590h.htm BLG PATLAMASI: BLG HER 4 YILDA KENDN KATLIYOR Milat (Miladi takvimde 0 yl) referans alnnca, bilginin ilk kez kendini katlamas 1750 yl ald. Sonra bilgi kendini 50 ylda katlad.

Dnyadaki bilgi imdi kendini her 4 ylda bir katlyor. 2020de bilginin kendini her 73 gnde bir katlamas bekleniyor. lkeler bilgi-tabanl ekonomiye bir an evvel gemek iin gayret gstermekteler. Artk en zengin lkeler en ok doal kaynaa sahip olanlar deil, en yksek beyin gcne sahip olanlardr. En gl firmalar da AR-GEye ynelip teknoloji gelitiren firmalardr. Zamann deerlerini iyi okuyan lkeler, net beyin g almak iin gerekli altyapy oluturup bir cazibe merkezi olmaktalar. Kaynak: UNESCO Forum Occasional Paper Series Paper No. 4 (2003). ZENGNLKLE FAKRLN FARKI: BLG Kii ba milli gelirde 6 kat fark

Kaynak: Dnya Bankas 63 DNYA TCARETNDE TEKNOLOJK RNLERN PAYI TRKYE: malat sanayiinde yksek teknoloji rn pay: 2000: %5; 2010: %2 Kaynak: Dnya Bankas, 1999 64

Bilgi Ekonomisinin Kaba bir ls: hrac rnlerinin Ortalama Birim Fiat, $/kg Yksek Katmadeerli Teknoloji rnleri Araba: $20/kg Tablet: $1000/kg Erythropoietin (Alyuvar retimini control eden bir hormon; kan kanseri tedavisinde kullanlan bir biyoteknoloji rn) $27 milyar/kg 2023 hedefi: $500 milyar ihracat, $2 trilyon milli gelir. Nasl gerekleecek? Kaynak: Prof. Cezmi Akdis, Director of Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma

Research (SIAF); An Indicator of Knowledge-Based Economy: Fraction of Intellectual Property: 80% http://www.oceantomo.com/media/newsreleases/Intangible-Asset-Market-Value-Study Cross-border Licensing and Royalty Income Billion USD Source: WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/freepublications/en/intproperty/944/wipo_pub_944_2011.pdf Teknolojik Gelimiliin ls: PATENT

lkelerce verilen patent says (2011) Trk Patent Enstitsnn son be ylda verdii yerli patent says: 2006da 122; 2007de 317; 2008de 337; 2009da 456; 2010da 642, 2011de 847. 2011de yabanclara verilen patent says: 5720 (%87) Kaynak: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_patents ve Trk Patent Enstits Firms with Most US Patents in 2012 (Top 25) No. No. Patents 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 6478 5081 3174 3032 2769 2613 2447 2013 1652 1624

1535 1461 1436 1410 1394 1377 1292 1290 1285 1157 1151 1136 1132 1118 1050

Firm International Business Machines Corp, IBM Samsung Electronics Co Ltd KR Canon K K JP Sony Corp JP Panasonic Corp JP Microsoft Corp Toshiba Corp JP Hon Hai Precision Industry Co Ltd TW General Electric Co LG Electronics Inc KR Fujitsu Ltd JP Seiko Epson Corp JP Hitachi Ltd JP Ricoh Co Ltd JP Hewlett-Packard Development Co L P

GM Global Technology Operations LLC QUALCOMM Inc Intel Corp Toyota Jidosha K K JP Broadcom Corp Google Inc Apple Inc Honda Motor Co Ltd JP Sharp K K JP Xerox Corp Source: http://ificlaims.com/index.php?page=misc_top_50_2012 Country United States Korea

Japan Japan Japan United States Japan Taiwan United States Korea Japan Japan Japan Japan United States United States United States United States

Japan United States United States United States Japan Japan United States IBM: Patentlerin %30u ABD Dndaki Mucitlerden IBM collected 6,478 patents in 2012 (the 20th consecutive year in top spot). 8,000 inventors in 46 states and 35 countries have contributed.

About 30% of IBMs patents were produced by inventors outside the U.S., up from 22 percent in 2010. With over 430,000 employees worldwide and over 67,000 patents since 1993, IBM invests about $6 billion/year in R&D. IBMs patent asset generates an estimated $1 billion/year in license revenue. But it also is a shield against patent litigation by competitors and patent-holding firms.

Qualcomm Inc, a designer of mobile-phone chips, made $6.33 billion/year in technology licensing. Samsung Electronics was granted 5,081 patents. Google posted a 170% jump from #65 in 2011 to #21 in 2012 in patents granted, with 1,151 patents. In 2012, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a total of 253,155 patents, a record. IBM patent strategy: the proliferation of mixed-skill teams of researchers

in fields like medicine, public health, and oil and gas exploration. Source: http://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-01-10/ and http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/10/ IP WARS: $1.17 Billion Award in Patent Infringement Case http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/jury-awards-carnegie-mellon-u-1-17-billion-in-patent-infringement-case/53485 Ar-Ge Harcamalar Dnya (2011) (MSAD 2012 Ar-Ge ve novasyon Raporu) Dnyada EN FAZLA Ar-Ge HARCAMASI YAPAN RKETLER

http://www.booz.com/media/uploads/BoozCo_The-2012-Global-Innovation-1000-Study.pdf Trkiyede EN FAZLA Ar-Ge HARCAMASI YAPAN RKETLER Johns Hopkins University: $2.15 Billion/yr R&D (Total Univ R&D in the US: $65 milyar; %57 in Life Sciences) Source: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf13305/ NVERSTELERDE GELTRLEN TEKNOLOJLER (ABD) Lisanslama Gelirleri (2010): $2.4 milyar (Toplam) $180 milyon, Northwestern University $178 milyon, New York University $147 milyon, Colombia University 12,281 Yeni patent bavurusu yapld 4469 Yeni patent alnd

613 Yeni balang firmas kuruldu (niversite-sahipli zihni mllkiyet zerinde) 657 Yeni ticari rn gelitirildi. Kaynak: http://www.autm.net/home.htm; Association of University Technology Managers Stanford Univ Grads: Worlds 10th Largest Economy (40,000 companies, $2.7 trillion annual sales) Source: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-11-09/stanford-rooted-companies-would-formworld-sized-economy.html ALTERNATF NOVASYON Going Where the Action is/Brains are: Samsung launches Silicon Valley incubator http://venturebeat.com/ 2013/07/12/samsunglaunches-silicon-valleyincubator/

July 11, 2013 Samsung opened the doors of a startup and entrepreneurship incubator/accelerator nestled in the heart of Silicon Valley. Samsung will also open a new Samsung Strategy and Innovation Center in Palo Alto, and incubators in other tech hubs such as New York, Austin, Boston, Russia, and Israel. Samsung Ventures America is a $1 billion fund. Acquisitions: Quick Access to Technology (China) Microsoft will acquire Nokia's devices and services unit and license the company's mapping services in a deal worth

$7.2 billion in a bid to bolster the company's position in the smartphone market. The software giant will pay $5 billion for "substantially all" of Nokia's phone unit and another $2.2 billion to license its patents. Dnya Markas Olmaya Kestirme Yol: Dnya Markas (IBM) al; Dnya markas (LENOVO) ol Founded (as Legend): 1984 (Beijing) Headquarters: Morrisvill, NC (USA) Products: PC, Notebook, Tablet,

Revenue (2013): $34 billion Employees: 35,000 Operations: 60+ countries Sales: 160 countries In 2013, Lenovo was the Worlds largest PC vendor by unit sales. Lenovo acquired IBMs Personal computer business in 2005 for $1.8 billion; instantly became the worlds 3rd largest computer maker. Entered the smartphone market in 2012; the largest vendor in China. Acquired the mobile phone maker Motoroal Mobility from Google in 2014. 58% of Lenovo stock is held by the general public (2011). Lenovo's official language: English http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenovo Global bilek grei/yar: Bkemediin eli SATIN AL

OYAK, Avusturya merkezli kimya irketi Chemson AG'nin hisselerini satn ald OYAK Grubu, 2012 ylnda ayn alanlarda faaliyet gsteren Akdeniz Kimya'y da satn almt. Aklamada "OYAK, Akdeniz Kimya ve Chemson AG irketleri ile polimer katk maddeleri arasnda nemli bir yer tutan ve PVC mamul retiminde vazgeilmez unsur olan PVC stabilizatrleri alannda dnya lideri konumuna ulamtr" denildi. Avusturya'daki tesislerine ilaveten ngiltere, ABD, Brezilya, in ve Avustralya'da retim tesisleri bulunan Chemson'un Almanya, Hollanda ve Singapur'da sat ofisleri bulunuyor. http://www.dunya.com/oyak-avusturyali-chemsonu-satin-aldi-207815h.htm; Erisim 12Kasim2013 Apple: Hala En Yeniliki Firmalar Listesinde Listeba Source:

http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2012/11/apple-mostinnovative/ Ross Rubin: There are different kinds of innovation. Apples innovation focuses on bringing together different parts of an ecosystem and tightly integrating them together with meticulous attention to detail. Samsung: Incorporate the latest technologies into its products.

Dell: Focus on relatively unglamorous innovation in process and manufacturing. Google: Innovation in prototypes and concepts. Charles Golvin: A big distinction for Apple is the breadth of areas in which it innovates: hardware, industrial design, software, usability, retail. Apple has come under criticism for its products being largely

evolutionary, rather than revolutionary. Apple, iPhone 5sin hangi paralarn yapyor? Cevap: Hibirini (Entegrasyon) Total cost for Parts&Manufacturing 32-GB: Cost: $208; Price $749 64-GB : Cost: $218; Price: $849 Profit: Over 50% (S&P 500 Automotive: 4%) 2013 revenue: $171 billion CPU (A7): SAMSUNG DISPLAY: JAPAN DISPLAY, LG, SHARP BATTERY: SONY CHIPS: TOSHIBA, SanDisk, ELPIDA,.. RF TRANSCEIVER: QUALCOMM

iOS (Software): APPLE MAKER of iPhone: FOXCONN (China) Source: http://www.eeherald.com/section/news/onws20130929006f.html/; http://www.isuppli.com/Teardowns/News/Pages/Default.aspx BTY Ekosisteminin Olmazsa Olmaz: UYGUN KLM SERACILIK 27C %70 nem Gne TEKNOLOJK GELM Hr Dnce, Gven ortam, Farkl Olma, Rizk Alma

SERALARDA EKOSSTEM: Gbre, su + Uygun klim (scaklk, nem, gne) BTY EKOSSTEM: Ar-Ge harcamalar, insan kaynaklar + Uygun klim (kiisel/kitlesel hak ve hrriyetler, demokratik ortam, bamsz dnce, farkllk, yaratclk, yenilikilik, giriimcilik, rizk alma, rizk sermayesi, takm almas, gven ortam, beyin cazibesi, ) Yerli Elektrikli Arata Kt Tecrbe: Renault Fluence 2 YILDA 215 ARA Trkiyede 2012'de 184 olan elektrikli ara sat 2013'te sadece 31 oldu. Source: http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/01/27/renault-elektrikli-aracin-fisini-cekti

TESLA: Driving Innovation in Electric Cars TESLA MOTORS was founded in 2003 in Silicon Valley, CA, and producing cars since 2008. It has 2000+ employees and it sold cars in 37 countries. Produces 500 electric vehicles a week (26,000 cars in 2013.) Predicted sales for 2014: 40,000 cars. Supercharger stations provide half a charge in 20 minutes. Battery pack can be swapped in 90 seconds. Received a $465 million loan from US Department of Energys Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Program. Repaid the entire loan back to DOE in May 2013. Range: 400 km per change. Motor: A 360 hp. Fuel cost: $2.8 per 100 km (at $0.11/kWh).

Acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h: 5.8 s. Price: $70,000 (in US). http://business.time.com/2013/08/08/tesla-shares-zoom-14-on-strong-sales-as-chinese-market-beckons/ YARATICILIK: Baarnn Srr Doutan gelen bu kabiliyet harekete geirilebilir ve gelitirilebilir, ama retilemez. Amerika var olmu en byk inovasyon makinesidir ve yakn bir zamanda kopya edilemeyecektir. nk bu, ok sayda faktrn arpmnn rndr: Ekstrem seviyede dnce zgrl, Bamsz dnceye yaplan vurgu, Srekli yeni beyin g, Teebbs edip baarszla uramann ayplanmad bir risk alma kltr,

Yolsuzlua bulamam bir brokrasi, Yeni fikirleri global rnlere dntren rakipsiz bir rizk sermayesi sistemi ile para ve sermaye piyasalar. - Thomas Friedman, New York Times, 7 Mart 2004 SON SZ: GRMCLK RUHU Giriimcilik Ruhu Bilgiden Daha nemlidir Bill Gates (Microsoft: $70 milyar/yl, 2011) Dnyann 2nci zengini, Harvard hukuk-hazrlktan terk; Ortaokuldan beri program yazyor. Steve Jobs (Apple: $109 milyar/yl) Reeds Collegeden terk. 1980lerde ilk grafik-tabanl PCyi (macintosh) yapt. Apple dnyann en yksek deerli halka ak firmas ($550 milyar).

Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook: $4 milyar/yl) Harvarddan terk (Psikoloji ve Bilgisayar). Dnyann en gen milyarderi. The Social Network filminin konusu. Michael Dell (Dell: $62 milyar/yl) University of Texas Tp-hazrlktan terk. Kklnde gazete satmaktan kazandi paray hisse senetlerine yatrd, ve niversitede iken Dell firmasn kurdu. Lawrence Ellison (Oracle: $40 milyar/yl) Dnyann 5nci zengini, Univ of Illinoisden terk. Ancak . niversiteden-terk bu kiiler ve firmalar:

niversiteden-terk hi kimseyi ie almazlar; alanlarn, en iyi niversitelerin en parlak mezunlar arasndan seerler; Bu tr firmalarda alan giriimci ruhlu ve zgven sahibi ok kii, bir sre sonra, yksek maal ilerini brakp kendi firmalarn kurarlar. nemli bir nokta: Bu kiiler okulu terkettii iin baarl olmad; baary henz renci iken yakaladklar iin okulu terketti.

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