Chapter 1 Architectural Styles -

Chapter 1 Architectural Styles -

Chapter 1 Architectural Styles ET 201- Architectural Drafting 10/14/2015 Lerandel Allen 1 Objectives Describe traditional architectural styles used in the United States. Explain how social and cultural ideas influence architecture. Explain the historical design influences on todays residential

homes. Identify types of multifamily housing Describe current trends in architecture 2 Key Terms Adobe Apartment Architectural Styles Condominium Cooperative

Craftsman period Half-timbering Mail-order house Mansard roof Modernism Multifamily housing Pattern books Period home Postmodernism Romanticism Townhouse

Victorian period 3 TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL STYLES 4 Native American Houses* Wigwam Small house usually made of wood frames covered with woven mats

Tipi Longhouse Rectangular and consisted of wood pole frames covered by bark or grass mats. Adobe A natural building material made of water, sand, clay, and straw mixed together, then formed into the desired shape Question 1 pages 22-25 Cone shaped structure covered with animal hides

Earthen Houses Built partially underground, the framework was covered with a layered system of smaller sticks, long grasses, woven mats, and earth 5 Adobe House 6 American Colonial Houses

Log Homes Simple one roomed, gabled roof house built from large logs with a centrally located door and chimney More interior space with a additional lean to structure, one half room deep, to the rear of the house Cape Cod Fairly small house with a gable roof and a massive central chimney located in line with the front door. Question 2 pages 26-27

Saltbox Tidewater House built along the coastline that has a porch that provides cool shelter from the hot sun and frequent rainstorms. * 7 Spanish Colonial Built of thick walls made of adobe brick or rubble stone, with few windows and multiple doors, and pitched or flat roof.

Georgian Federal/Adam Symmetrical, multistory dwellings with a low pitched or flat roof More delicate and refined than the Georgian * Question 3 page 29 Style that placed emphasis on symmetry and geometrical proportions Pattern Books publications of treatises, essays, and books on architectural design and construction

8 Georgian 9 Romantic Styles Covered entry with columns that resembled the look of a greek temple Gothic revival

Steeply pitched, cross gabled roof with decorative gable trim Question 4 page 30 Romanticism a revolt against the Enlightenment movement. Challenged the role of religion and emphasized the ability of humans to reason and change society. * Greek Revival Italianate Square or rectangular and two or three stories high, with a flat or low pitched roof

10 Victorian Period Same architectural style as a Italianate but have a mansard roof, *double pitched hip roof that allowed the top level be used for living space, and windows were less elaborate and arched. Stick Question 5 page 32

Victorian Period time of month when a woman must be treated like a queen such as queen Victoria or you will have hell to pay. Second Empire The exterior wall was the decorative element Queen Anne Asymmetrical forms, steeply pitched roofs , projecting gables, and patterned shingles. 11

Second Empire 12 Period Home Styles A period home represented the past when the virtues of tradition were important. Colonial Revival Asymmetrical queen Anne structures with classical elements of roman and Greek design.

Spanish Eclectic Asymmetrical faade, low pitched tile roofs, and prominent arch under tile roof, etc. Tudor Revival One and one-half or two and one half stories. The wood frame was covered with stucco, brick, stone, or wood, often with halftimbering , exposed hand hewn wood framing with masonry filled spaces 13 Tudor Revival

14 STYLES OF THE 20TH CENTURY 15 The craftsman period was a movement where the purpose was to renew the human spirit by reuniting art, labor, and artist while promoting hand workmanship. Available through mail order houses. * Mail-order Houses affordable, mass-produced, unassembled

houses in do it yourself kits. Foursquare A square house, one to two and one half stories, divided into four rooms per floor Question 6 page 36 Craftsman period Bungalow A rectangular one or one and one half story dwelling, usually with a low sloping gable roof with a wide overhang and a full or

partial porch 16 Bungalow 17 Prairie Form follows function Open interior spaces

And merging architecture with nature. Most noted architect Frank Lloyd Wright 18 Art Deco United smooth surfaces, geometric shapes, and projections with

strong vertical or horizontal lines to emphasize architectural features. 19 Asymmetrical with smooth surfaces, often with curved corners, and a flat roof

Had roots in Bauhaus movement* Question 7 pages 38-39 Art Moderne 20 Embraced form, function, and new building technology

Bauhaus movement had a major influence * Question 7 pages 38-39 International 21 Ranch Long and low one

story house style that developed from the homes built by ranchers in the south western United States. 22 Postmodern Postmodernism marked the return of

embellishment, and injected wit and character into architecture. Generally characterized by the use of sculptural forms, ornaments, and materials to make a statement about the owner or architect 23

Neomodern Emphasize form and function and reject the use of decoration and elements borrowed from past architectural styles 24 RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE TODAY

25 Question 9 pages 41-42 Contemporary houses are the result of years of architectural design and evolution. The needs and finance of a family generally dictate the type and style of todays construction.* The ability of the architect or building designer to meet the clients needs is equally important.*

26 Multifamily Housing are buildings that provide homes for more than one family MULTIFAMILY HOUSING 27 Cooperative Cooperative refers to a type of ownership rather than a type of building

The building is owned and operated by a corporation Each familys living space is called a unit. Each buyer buys a stock and become a shareholder and in return they receive a lease that grants them the right to occupy the unit. 28 Condominium Question 8 pages 42-44

A condominium is similar to cooperative but the owner buys the unit and a share of the common ground.* The owner receives a deed on the unit and pays taxes on it 29 Townhouse A townhouse is typically a two to four story house connected to one or more similar houses

by a common wall. 30 Apartment An apartment is living space that is available for rent. Rent is money paid in exchange for the right to occupy and use the space.

31 TRENDS IN ARCHITECTURE 32 Trends include creating designs for the homes that use or re-use: Existing building material Newly developed materials Materials and processes that are free of toxic chemicals Materials that are easily reusable

smart materials that can respond to environmental conditions Sustainable materials harvested from renewable natural resources.* Question 10 page 47 33

Summary Traditional architectural styles were first brought to the American colonies by settlers from Europe and were adapted to use local materials and methods. ( Obj. 1 ) Social and cultural attitudes affect architectural design in many ways, including use of materials and the extent of ornamentation. ( Obj. 2) 34 Todays architectural designs draw from traditional styles

developed over hundreds of years. ( Obj. 3 ) Cooperative, condominiums, and rental apartments are common forms of multifamily housing. ( Obj. 4 ) Trends in residential architecture include designing for comfortable living and environmentally friendly housing. ( Obj. 5) 35

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