BIOTECHNOLOGY - Humble Independent School District

BIOTECHNOLOGY - Humble Independent School District

BIOTECHNOLOGY/GENETIC ENGINEERING What is Biotechnology? Simply put, it is the use of living systems and organisms to produce useful products such as medicines. Some examples are: selective breeding, genetic modifications and cloning. SELECTIVE BREEDING

Earliest form of biotechnology Used in plants and animal Used to produce desired traits TWO TYPES: 1. inbreeding 2. outbreeding (aka hybridization)

INBREEDING Cross organisms with similar genotypes Purpose: Maintain desirable traits in the same line of organisms Risks: Can cause undesirable recessive (rr) traits to be

expressed (such as deafness, blindness, joint deformations) Inbreeding OUTBREEDING AKA: Hybridization Hybridization involves crossing parent organisms with

different forms of a trait to produce offspring with specific traits. Hybrid organisms can be bred to be more diseaseresistant, to produce more offspring, or to grow faster. A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is time consuming and expensive. OUTBREEDING

Cross organisms from different species (genotypes) Usually causes sterility Conserve endangered species (Florida Panther X Texas Cougars) Increase strength and vigor (Examples: mule, liger)

Donkey (x) female horse Male lion (x) female tiger Video of Hybrids: Transgenic Organisms:

Organisms with genes from other organisms are called transgenic organisms. Transgenic animals, plants, and bacteria are used for research, medicine, and agriculture. Animal: Study diseases, Improve food supply Plants: Resist extreme weather, Produce vaccines or biodegradable plastics Bacteria: Clean up oil spills, Decompose garbage

GENETIC ENGINEERING Technique used to identify or change genes at the molecular level. Many uses such as: determining paternity, studying the expression of and identifying a carrier of a particular gene for a particular disorder, cloning, investigating cellular processes, and studying the

development of a certain disease. GENETIC ENGINEERING One technique known as Gel Electrophoresis, developed by Alec Jeffreys, is used to make a pattern called a DNA Fingerprint. Restriction enzymes are used to cleave/ break apart the DNA sequence prior to electrophoresis.

The process of Gel Electrophoresis separates the DNA fragments according to size GENETIC ENGINEERING DNA FINGERPRINT: an analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function in order to identify one individual from another.

Example of a DNA Fingerprint used in a paternity suit: lane 1 = mother lane 2 = child lane 3 = putative father #1 lane 4 = putative father

#2 Cloning: The creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two (like identical twins). Genetic Modification: (Genetic Modified Organisim, GMO) changing (manipulating) genes in plants or animals to achieve a desired outcome. Example: a crop that is

more drought, disease or insecticide resistant (rice, corn, soybeans)

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