BIOM POUŠŤ - Masaryk University

BIOM POUŠŤ - Masaryk University

POUT A POLOPOUT Lucie Horkov, Geografie (FG) Charakteristika aridn oblasti (1/3 zemskho povrchu podl obou obratnk) vpar pevyuje ron hrn srek (nen vt ne 250mm) vysok letn teploty, velk denn teplotn

vkyvy (a 50C), siln insolace, mal vlhkost vzduchu, msty siln vtr klima such tropick, subtropick, mrn kontinentln Pout Klimatick (pastov) obratnkov oblasti TV, kde vzduch, kter v rovnkovm psmu vystoupil do vky a pitom ztratil vlhu vypadvnm srek, opt sestupuje a pitom se ohv a sniuje se jeho relativn vlhkost, ohev a sniovn relativn vlhkosti pokrauje, kdy vzduch jako past proud do nich

zempisnch ek (Sahara) Poben zpadn okraje kontinent, chladn mosk proudy, vtry vanouc od chladnho moe na pevninu, se nad sou otepluj, m se sniuje relativn vlhkost vzduchu, a tm i monost vzniku atmosfrickch srek (Namib, Atakama) Vnitn centrln oblasti pevnin, such klima, kontinentalita, izolace pohom (Gobi) Pou X polopou Pout extrmn aridn klima se sporou vegetac Polopout obklopuj pout, vyvinutj

oteven formace xeromorfn keky, trsnat traviny, sukulenty, zakrsl stromy Typy pout podle charakteru substrtu Hamady skaln a kamenit pout (70%)

Seriry trkovit pout Regy oblzkov pout Ergy psen pout (20%) Takyry hlinit pout Psen pout psen duna jakkoli vyvenina tvoen pskem a modelovan innost vtru zanik pokud: zaroste vegetac, zanikne zdroj psku, zmn se charakter proudn vzduchu typy dun: srpovit, pn, hvzdicovit,

parabolick, podln Rostlinstvo - pizpsoben dlouhmu obdob sucha (10 12 aridnch msc) - podle vegetanch formac dlme na: polopu nzk, dk kee trnit polopou nzk stromy, kee such pou kaktusy, nzk xerofytn rostliny 1. Efemern druhy

- krtk ivotn cyklus asov sek po detch - sucho ve form semen = jednolet rostliny therofyty nebo jako podzemn zsobn orgny (cibulky, hlzy) = geofyty 2. Xerofyty sucho v aktivnm stavu Sukulenty dunat rostliny s vodnatm parenchymem zsoba vody, koenov systm je podpovrchov, rozprosten do plochy (ele kaktusovitch Cactaceae, prycovitchEuphorbiaceae)

Sklerofyty stle zelen tvrd listy se silnou kutikulou, vyztuen sklerenchymatickm pletivem-odoln vi vadnut, mohutn hluboko sahajc koenov systm vlh spodn vrstvy Halofyty znaky sukulence, vzan na chemick vlastnosti pdy (soli) Fauna pizpsoben tvrdm podmnkm originlnm neopakovatelnm zpsobem

mus bt schopni omezit mnostv slunench paprsk dopadajcch na n, vypodat se s pehtm svho tla bhem dne zahrabni pod zem, dlouh hust vlnit srst, promnliv teplota tla, voda z rostlin, z koisti

Klokan rud Macropus rufus hluboce oddechuje a pot se Fenek berbersk Vulpes zerda Dal ivoichov

klokan dama, poutn klokan, keek blohrdl, pskomil tlust, sysel kalifornsk, kunovk ttkat, blozubky poutn, jeci uat, jeura australsk, kojot prriov, lika velkouch, tarbci, brcouni, pytloui, kekovit, my klokanovit, manul, zajc africk, tmavoocas, poben, poutn blatnice a ropucha Ptci: afrit stepokurov, americk kukaka kohout, kakadu lutoeelat, bhulk plav, kulek trpasli, sova krli, ptros dvouprst, raroh jin, hrdlika

dlouhoocas, skivan dlouhozob, bloit poutn, sojka saxaulov a drozd. Jeti: gekon zedn, agama, varan pustinn, korovec jedovat a scink obecn. Plazi: kobra egyptsk, zmije pav, hroznek poutn, chest zelen, vejcorout africk a poutn elva. Hmyz: ti, stevlci, stevlci, vosiky, kutilky, ahalky, mravenci, termiti, smrtnci, vbi, solifuga egejsk, slk Poutn elva Gopherus agassizii Jeek uat

Hemiechinus auritus Gekon zedn Tarentola mauritanica Ptros dvouprst Struthio camelus tr tlustorep Androctonus australis

Korovec jedovat Heloderma suspectum Kobra egyptsk Naja haje Sova krli Athene cunicularia Chest zelen Crotalus viridis Pou a voda vpar pevyuje ron hrn srek (nen vt ne 250mm)

ozy vzny na ptomnost podzemn vody (artzsk pnve) oty sneniny, kde se po deti vypauje voda soln pnve vd such dol, ve kterch po deti protk voda vegetace Po deti Oza Geografick rozen

Nejrozshlej poutn oblast podl obratnku Raka od SZ pobe Afriky, pes Saharu, Arabsk poloostrov, jin rn a do SZ Indie Sahara Severn Afrika, nejvt pou svta (9 mil.km2), jen men st je pokryta pskem, vt plochy zabr hamada, serir a reg : - sever 200 mm/zimn msce: polopout v such mediternn stepi - centrln Sahara - jih pechod v trnitokeov savany sahelu

Paovce hivnat Ammotragus lervia plazi (varani, jetrky) Gazela dorkas Gazella dorcas Tarbk egyptsk Jaculus jaculus Zmije rohat

Cerastes cerastes Gazela pskov Gazella leptoceros divoc velbloudi jednohrb byli domestikovni oty (halofytn vegetace), ozy (palma dumov a akcie nahrazeny datlovnkem) Datlovnk prav Phoenix dactylifera

Jihoafrick oblast Namib aridn ve vnitrozem, 15 20 mm srek za rok chladn Benguelsk proud (poben pou) Kalahari travnato-kekov polopout, pechod do trnit bue a savan Medojed

Mellivora capensis Welwitschie podivn Welwitschia mirabilis Karru polopou - Aloe (dichotoma), Crassula (mesembryanthe moides), tzv. iv kameny

(Lithops) Oblast Arbie mlo prav pout, polopout, trnit savany Stedoasijsk oblast mrn klim.ps, sucho, rozdly teplot hork lto (nad 40C), drsn zima (a 40C), snh, spor vegetace

pout Karakum, Kyzylkum (Turkmenistn, Uzbekistn), Gobi vnitn pou,nejsevernji poloen pou (na, Mongolsko), Taklamakan (na) pelyky, saxauly, tamaryky, aspicie jedl tamaryek tamarix Severoamerick oblast

polopout na zp.okraji kontinentu v SZ Mexiku, jin Arizon, jin Kalifornii (Sonorsk, Mojavsk, Gilsk), 100 300 mm srek sukulenty kaktusy, agave, juky (Yucca) nejvt kaktusy na svt saguro (Carnegiea gigantea) a 10 m ptci (datli, vreci, potolky), hlodavci, psovec devtipsov, kojot, puma, plazi (jetrky, hadi-chest)

Jihoamerick oblast Atakama (Chile/Peru) - poben pou - Perunsk proud aridn klima, tm bez srek - Andy barira vchodn past hust mlha garua zimnch mscch specifick mln

vegetace (lomasov vegetace) Australsk oblast pout - Velk Psen, Gibsonova, Velk Viktoriina, Simpsonova pou a pou Tanami, poloput nejsu (do 130 mm srek) Eremea poutn jdro obklopuje keov bu = mulga (akcie) kapinice Acacia glucoptera

Korela chocholat Nymphicus hollandicus vanat vakokrti a vakomyi, poutn papouci psit a oblzkov pout dk trsy trav (Triodia) Moloch ostnit Moloch horridus

Desertifikace = roziovn pout globln oteplovn, nadmrn spsn i vytovn pdy, roziujc se populace a zneuvn zavlaovn (zasolovn) rozen prachu napklad z mongolsk pout Gobi do Japonska

i na Havaj Sahara do atmosfry a miliarda tun prachu penen bakteri a plsn (mikroorganismy z Afriky pokodily korlov tesy v Karibiku) Zdroje Fyzick geografie II, Doc. RNDr. Stanislav

Hornk, CSc., Sttn pedagogick nakladatelstv, Praha, 1986 Pednky ze semine fyzick geografie Zem, vod do geografie,esk geografick spolenost, 1995 http://cs.wikipedia http://michalweb.wz.cz/pst.htm http://zoo.bf.jcu.cz/tropy/pouste.html http://www.e-pocasi.cz/

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