Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Part 2 Review of Reactions Condensation/Dehydration/Synthesis Monomers joined together One monomer releases H+, the other releases OH Hydrolysis Reaction Polymers broken down

required H+ joins one , OH- joins other Dehydration reactions Not Dehydration

s contain four major families of small carbon-based organic mole covalent bonds between the building block monomers create polymeric macromolecules 3:3

Proteins Large molecules ( ) that form some of the cytoplasm, hormones, globulins,

antibodies, and Provides structure (ex: and cartilage) Composed of group (NH2) group (COOH) and a common attached to the side chain R

R group can be one H or as complex as a system R groups amino acids in total All have different R groups Proteins Amino acids joined together through

reactions (water produced) to form polymer and . Polypeptide chains can be between 50 amino acids long are referred to as . During the dehydration reaction, a bond forms between N of group of one amino acid and the C of the group of the other

amino acid The peptide bond is (slightly positive H and slightly negative O) Formation of Peptide Bond Proteins Primary structure Amino acid sequence of a

linear chain of amino acids) chain (a single Secondary structure Amino acids within the polypeptide chain begins to form H-bonds H-bonds cause the chain to either form a

,a sheet, loops, or turns within the same chain Proteins Tertiary structure The different

structures within the polypeptide chain come together and arrange themselves to form a shape due to different non-covalent interactions (H- bonding, ionic interactions, van der waals forces, and interactions) Once this globular shape is finalized, covalent bonds form between two (S-S) in

different R groups to the proteins shape together Quantenary Structure More than one chain comes together to form this many, although not all engage in this type of structure

hemoglobin each red blood cell contains ~3x108 hemoglobin molecules Proteins Tertiary structures can be changed or denatured by heat,

, UV light or pH. Denaturation can be temporary or What is denaturation? Carbohydrates Can be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and

have carbon chains between 3-7 Cs in length Ex) 3C monosaccharides = triose 4C monosaccharides = pentose 6C monosaccharides = Two monosaccharides joined together through reactions form a A disaccharide can be broken down through to form two Polysaccharides are long chains of

Ex) cellulose or starch Carbohydrates Monosaccharides form disaccharides 3:9 Basic Photosynthesis

Works hand in hand with cellular respiration ose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds form storage carbohyd starch in plants polysaccharides glycogen in animals

3:10 lysaccharides also play an important role in cell structure and cell signaling Polysaccarides Cellulose Made up of monomers Makes up the cell in plant cells

No Glycogen Starch

Made up of glucose monomers Glucose is stored in this form in animal cells Can be

into glucose monomers if need for cellular

Extensive branching Made up of glucose monomers Glucose is stored in this form in plant cells Can be hydrolysed into glucose

monomers if need for cellular respiration branching glycogen Lipids Lipids - Triglyceride contains C, H, and O

no fixed ratio of atoms ex: fats and oils found in cell also used for storage all have two separate building blocks: 1) 1 glycerol 2) 3 fatty acids * 3 fatty acids and one glycerol make 1 lipid molecule

Lipids Oils: liquids at room temperature many bonds in fatty acids Fats: solid at room fewer

bonds Waxes: at room temperature longer carbon backbones 15 Lipids

H from each OH of glycerol joins with OH from carboxyl group of each fatty acid through a reaction Results in the formation of (neutral fat) + 3H2O Glycerol

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids-Phospholipid Phospholipids Lipid with a group Usually a neutral fat with a phosphate on one of the fatty

Found in cell (phospholipid bilayer) Polar end in high water concentration area cytoplasm or fluid Phospholipids 3:12

Hydrophilic Molecules 2:17 Hydrophobic molecules Nonpolar molecules and nonpolar portions of molecules tend to

aggregate in water = Water cannot form hydrogen bonds with nonpolar substances Water will form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and surround a nonpolar molecule The less hydrophobic surface, the more energetically favorable it is for water to surround nonpolar

molecules How is this accomplished? C-C and C-H bonds are the most common nonpolar bonds in biological systems By nonpolar molecules aggregating

2:18 Hydrophobic Effect 2:19 Hydrophobic effect is not an attraction

between particles but an avoidance of an energetically unfavorable state Hydrophobic effect 2:20

lipid bilayer prevents the diffusion of polar substances solutes spontaneously diffuse from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration a lipid bilayer prevents the diffusion of polar substances out of the inner

compartment (also prevents the inward diffusion of polar substances) 3:13 Types of Lipids steroids: 1.

: a. component of cell membranes that affects stiffness b. to synthesize other steroids/hormones e.g. testosterone & estrogen

2. hormones: growth/functioning of specific cells chemical messengers between cells e.g. stimulates sperm production Nucleic Acids

Purines Adenine Pyriminadines Cytosine Nucleic Acids Are formed of subunits called Nucleotide are composed of a base, a

sugar, and a acid In DNA the nitrogenous base may be one of 4: adenine, guanine Pyrimidines , DNA DNA (Deoxyribonucleic

Acid) is sided with H-bonds between the bases holding it together Purines have two bonds between them while

have three hydrogen bonds RNA RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is stranded RNA contains the base

instead of thymine ATP ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is a containing an adenine, a ribose sugar, and 3

groups (instead of one) Between each phosphate group are rich bonds This is where the cell obtains its ATP

ADP + phosphate + energy By the end of this section you should know: Demonstrate knowledge of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis as applied to organic monomers and polymers Differentiate among carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids with respect to chemical structure Recognize the following molecules in structural diagrams: ATP, DNA,

disaccharide, glucose, glycerol, hemoglobin, monosaccharide, neutral fat, phospholipids, polysaccharide (starch, glycogen, and cellulose), ribose, RNA, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, steroids Recoginze the empiracle formula of a monosaccharide as CnH2nOn List the main functions of carbohydrates differentiate among monosaccharides (e.g., glucose), disaccharides (e.g., maltose), and polysaccharides differentiate among starch, cellulose, and glycogen with respect to: function, type of bonding, level of branching

describe the location, structure, and function of the following in the human body: neutral fats, steroids, and phospholipids compare saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of molecular structure list the major functions of proteins draw a generalized amino acid and identify the amine, acid (carboxyl), and R-groups identify the peptide bonds in dipeptides and polypeptides

differentiate among the following levels of protein organization with respect to structure and types of bonding: primary, secondary (alpha helix, beta pleated sheet), tertiary, quaternary (e.g., hemoglobin) list the major functions of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) name the four nitrogenous bases in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and describe the structure of RNA using the following terms: nucleotide (ribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base, adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine), linear, single stranded, sugar-phosphate backbone name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and describe the structure of

DNA using the following terms: nucleotide (deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine), complementary base pairing, double helix, hydrogen bonding, sugar-phosphate backbone compare the general structural composition of DNA and RNA relate the general structure of the ATP molecule to its role as the energy currency of cells

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