Biological Molecules The Building Blocks of Life Atoms to Molecules In our model of scale, remember that the marble represented a small monomer, such as glucose.
Functional Groups Functional groups determine how a molecule will interact with other molecules.
Why does sugar dissolve in water? One glucose molecule alone is a monomer. Two or more glucose
molecules linked together can make a polymer. Dehydration Synthesis Two glucose
molecules (monomers)... ...can bond together to make maltose (dimer). Hydrolysis
A dimer such as maltose, or any other polymer... ...can be broken apart into its constituent
monomers. Making/Breaking Molecules The process occurring between C and A is:
Hydrolysis Monomers or Polymers? The process occurring between A and C is:
Dehydratio n Synthesis What is given off here?
H2O What is taken up here? H2O Monomer or Polymer?
In our model of scale, large chain molecules (polymers) are represented by the cat. Carbohydrates Monomers Simple sugars, such
as glucose, are the monomers of complex carbohydrates. Label a hydrogen group and hydroxyl group on the glucose diagram. What are
some properties of these groups? What is similar about these four simple sugars? What is different?
glucose fructose sucrose What process do you see happening here to create this glycosidic linkage between the two sugars?
What is the scientific term for a pair of monomers linked together? Glycosidic linkages between many sugar molecules create complex carbohydrates, such as starch.
What is the scientific term for many monomers linked together? Cellulose Cotton
Linen Hemp Rayon Dietary fiber
What do you see in the structure of cellulose that tells you that it is a carbohydrate? How is cellulose similar to starch? Cellulose vs. Starch We can digest starch (amylose) but not
cellulose. What difference do you see that might be the reason behind this? Chitin In general, how can we describe
complex carbohydrates ? Pectin White death? Some people claim that sugar is harmful,
toxic, or addictive. Is it? http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-sugar-affects-the-brain-nicole-av ena Fake sugar? Lipids
Label a methyl group and a hydroxyl group on one of the fatty acids. What are some properties of these groups? What process do you see happening here to create
these ester bonds between the fatty acid chains and the glycerol in this triglyceride?
Lipids that are solid at room temperature are composed mostly of saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid (found in
wax and lard) and butyric acid (found in butter) are examples of saturated fatty acids. Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are composed mostly
of unsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are unsaturated fatty acids that are common in vegetable oils.
Saturated vs. Unsaturated A puzzle: Shortening and margarine labels often brag that their products are made with
healthy, unsaturated vegetable oils. Vegetable oils are liquid at room temperature. So why are shortening and margarine solid at room temperature? Trans fats?
Unsaturated fats bend because of the cis configuration Trans configuration results in an unsaturated fatty acid that is a straight
chain like a saturated fatty acid Trans fats are rare in nature. Hydrogenation can create both saturated and trans fatty acids. Phospholipids Saturated or
unsaturated? Label the phosphate group on this phospholipid. What are some properties of this group?
Steroids Fake fat? What do you see in this molecular structure that suggests why Olestra is not digested? Why might it cause the symptoms
described on the label? Proteins Monomers Amino group
Carboxylic acid group Amino acids are the monomers of proteins. On your diagram, label the amino group and the carboxylic acid group. What are some properties of these groups?
R-groups determine the properties of individual amino acids. What process do you see happening here to create
this peptide bond between the two amino acids? What is the scientific term for many monomers linked together? Some proteins, like keratin, are structural proteins. Actin and myosin fibers in muscle cells, spider webs, and silk are also structural proteins.
Some proteins, such as insulin, are hormones. Some proteins are enzymes that build or break down other molecules in living cells. Some proteins are structured to carry or move substances, such as hemoglobin that carries
oxygen, or cell membrane proteins that move substances across the membrane. Heat, acidity, or both can denature proteins. Denaturing changes the shape of a protein, which changes its appearance and functionality. Denaturing is what happens when we fry an egg (egg whites contain albumin protein) or use acids
to turn milk into cheese (milk solids contain casein proteins). The shape of a protein determines its function. The shape of an individual protein is determined by the order of amino acids in the primary chain, which affects how the amino acid chain twists and folds into the final shape of the protein.
DNA contains the code that instructs the cell machinery to put amino acids together in a particular order to make a particular protein. As long as the DNA contains the correct code, the protein will function. Mistakes in the code (mutations) change the order of amino acids, which changes the structure of the protein, which prevents the protein from carrying out its function.
Nucleic Acids Monomers Label the parts on this nucleotide. Is this a
nucleotide of DNA or RNA? How can you tell? Nucleotides link together to form nucleic acids. The sugars bind to the phosphate groups to form the backbone of the chain.
DNA is two strands of nucleotides sideby-side. What is the type of bond that forms the cross-links holding the two strands together?
ATP Adenosine triphosphate, the universal energy carrier, is a single nucleotide (adenine) with
two extra phosphate groups attached. Try to fill in this table from memory: Monomers Simple sugars
Recap Atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and a few other elements bond together covalently to make the biological molecules. Monomers (small molecules, such as glucose) bond together to form polymers (large chain molecules, such as complex
carbohydrates). The four classes of biological molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
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