BIOL 211 Final Exam Review - Iowa State University
BIOL 211 Final Exam Review Supplemental Instruction 12/7/2017 Remember The only topic covered on this exam is Ecology. Lectures include: Intro to Ecology, Population Ecology, Community Ecology, Ecosystem Ecology, Global Ecology, and Biodiversity &Conservation
55 multiple choice questions Intro to Ecology Basic understanding of these lecture slides will make understanding the rest much easier!!! Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with other and non-living components of their environment Know definitions of the following: ecology, population, ecosystem, community, biosphere
Different Types of Ecology 1st level: Organismal ecology the study of individual organisms and their characteristics. Ex. research question: What adaptations enable sockeye salmon to reproduce successfully? The question is asking about a specific type of organism (sockeye salmon.) 2nd level: Population ecology the study of how abundance and distribution of individuals in a population change over time and space
Ex. research question: What percentage of the salmon population can be sustainably harvested by humans? Different Types of Ecology 3rd level: Community ecology the study of interactions among species inhabiting a geographic area Ex. research question: Which species do salmon interact with through predator-prey interactions, and do these interactions regulate abundance of species involved? The question is asking about interactions between species.
Has to be community because there is multiple species within a community. Different Types of Ecology 4th level: Ecosystem ecology the study of interactions among organisms and nonliving components of the environment Ex. research question: How do interaction between salmon and other species influence nutrient flow pathways in stream ecosystems? This question is asking about another type of ecosystem.
5th level: Global ecology the study of interactions among organisms and nonliving components within the entire biosphere. Ex. research question: How will climate change affect sockeye salmon abundance and distribution? Climate change deals with the whole biosphere. Abiotic and Biotic Factors Both determine abundance and distribution of a species. Abiotic (non-living) factors: sunlight, temperature, water,
nutrients, habitat Biotic (living) factors: prey availability, competition for resources, predation, parasitism, commensalisms, mutualisms Geographic Trends Terrestrial biome is an ecosystem characterized by dominant forms of vegetation. Plant abundance and species diversity are greatest when temperature is high and water and sunlight are abundant. When plants are abundant and diverse, so are animals.
Arctic tundra is a type of terrestrial biome characterized by lowgrowing plants, with low plant and animal abundance due to low quantities of solar radiation, low temperature, and limited availability of water and nutrients. Tropical wet forest is a type of terrestrial biome characterized by abundant trees, high plant and animal abundance due to lots of solar radiation, high temperature, high water availability and many biotic resources. Geographic Trends Aquatic biome is an ecosystem type characterized by
salinity, water flow and depth. Examples include oceans (high salinity), lakes (low salinity), and streams (low salinity.) Salinity: salt content In oceans and lakes, organism abundance and species diversity is greatest in shallow water where light reaches the bottom and nutrients are replenished by streams or upwelling. In deep lakes, nutrients are returned to surface and oxygen
Population Ecology Know definitions: metapopulation, r-selected species, K-selected species Global human population at the present time: exceeds 7 billion individuals, and has increased by more than 4 billion individuals since the year 1960. 3 main things have been impacted by change in global human population: Carbon dioxide concentrations in atmosphere have increased Plant and animal species diversity has declined
Natural resources are being consumed at a faster rate than they can be replaced Community Ecology Community Ecology and Lyme Disease Caused by a bacteria transmitted to humans through tick bite The abundance of the pathogen causing Lyme disease increased as woodland patch size declined
Symbiotic Relationships Competition ( -, -) both organisms require the same resource and are adversely (negatively) affected Example: cheetahs and lions feed on similar prey. They are negatively impacted by the presence of the other due to less food but they still persist together. Consumption (+, -) an agent of natural selection in predator/ parasite species Example: reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone (discussed in class.) Wolves fed on elk, which resulted in a decline of
the elk population (-) and an increase in forage (grass) that previously had been eaten by elk (+) Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism (+, 0) an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other is unaffected. Example: a tree providing habitat for vines or flowers. Mutualism (+,+) an association between two organisms in which both benefit. Example: Oxpecker and a rhino. The oxpecker (bird) eats
the insects of the rhino while the rhino gets pest control from the bird. Community Development 4 stages Severe disturbance very low species richness Pioneer stage species richness is low but increasing Intermediate stage species richness is high and increasing Climax stage species richness
is high but no longer increasing Ecosystem Ecology Gross Primary Production (GPP): total amount of energy captured by primary production per unit area and time Net Primary Production (NPP): amount of GPP used for growth or reproduction, represents energy available to consumers NPP = GPP respiration
Energy Flow Consumers determine NPP flow pathway through trophic (feeding) relationships. With each trophic transfer, energy is lost. Therefore, biomass at upper trophic levels is much lower than primary producer biomass (energy.) Global Ecology Declining terrestrial plant abundance alters the water cycle. Evaporation rate of water increases because plants are not
available to store water as well as not available to absorb heat. Surface water runoff increases because plants are not available to absorb water. Photosynthesis: can reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon A species with a large population size and large geographic range, high genetic diversity, and the capacity to disperse long distances is most likely to avoid extinction in a rapidly changing climate. Good Luck! I will post this PPT and a review question worksheet with
the answers tomorrow! I would begin studying by reviewing Intro to Ecology lecture slides, then go through review questions. If there is a topic you are having trouble with, then go back and review lecture slides! Be sure to contact me if you have any questions.Thanks for a great semester of SI!
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