Electron Configurations Objectives: 3.0 Use the periodic table to identify periodic trends, including atomic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity, and energy levels. 3.1 Utilizing electron configurations, Lewis dot structures, and orbital notations to write chemical formulas
Ground State Electron Configurations Electron configuration: the arrangement of electrons in an atom What is ground state? Three rules define how electrons are arranged in an atoms orbitals: 1. The aufbau principle 2. The Pauli exclusion principle
3. Hunds rule The Aufbau Principle Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available, according to the aufbau diagram: The Pauli Exclusion Principle A maximum of 2 electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but ONLY if the
electrons have opposite spins (represented by and ). Hunds Rule Single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals (i.e., 1 in each 3p orbital BEFORE a can pair up with a in an orbital).
Orbital Diagrams and Electron Configuration Notations These are just 2 different ways to represent an atoms electron configuration. Orbital Diagrams: Have a box for each of the atoms orbitals. Boxes contain either (1 electron), or
(full orbital), or may be empty. Each box is labeled with the principal quantum number and the sublevel associated with the orbital. Examples on board Electron Configuration Notation Shorthand to designate all electrons and their orbitals Designates principal energy level and
sublevel, and includes a superscript to show the number of electrons in the orbital. Example: Carbon 1s22s22p2 What is the electron diagram for carbon? Table 5-3, p.137 Electron Configuration Notation (cont.) What is the electron configuration notation for the following elements?
a. b. c. d. e. f. Helium Neon Argon
Krypton Xenon Radon What do these elements have in common? Electron Configuration Notation (cont.) Electron configuration notation can be
abbreviated by noble-gas notation. [He] = 1s2 [Ne] = 1s22s22p6 So magnesium can be written: 1s22s22p63s2 -OR [Ne]3s2 How would you write phosphorous?
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