BASIC CHEMISTRY, SOLUTIONS, OSMOSIS BASIC CHEMISTRYof SOLUTIONS SOLUTION ARE MIXTURES Solutions can be: Liquid/liquid: alcohol in water Gas/gas- oxygen in air Gas/liquid- oxygen in blood
Solid/liquid- sand in water -Salt in water Gas /solid: pumice Solutions are made to a certain concentration Concentration = solute (grams) solvent( ml) Concentration units= percent or molar Ex. 2% NaCl= 2 grams NaCl in 100 ml of water
Well mixed= homogeneous solution (same concentration on top of mixture as bottom) - Taste same saltiness throughout Dilutions and Concentrations Making various concentration from a stock solution DISSOLVING IS A PHYSICAL CHANGE
WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT SOME CHEMICALS DISSOLVE IN WATER SOME CHEMICALS DO NOT DISSOLVE THIS DEPENDS ON THE POLARITY POLAR CHEMICALS DISSOLVE POLAR CHEMICALS EX.SODIUM CHLORIDE IN WATER LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE CHEMICALS THAT DISSOLVE IN WATER ARE CALLED HYDROPHYLIC (water loving)
NOT ALL CHEMICALS DISSOLVE IN WATER SOME CHEMICAL DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER SINCE THEY ARE NON-POLAR (HYDROPHOBIC) Ex. Oil and water dont mix BUT NON-POLAR DISSOLVES NONPOLAR- (like dissolves like) Ex. Oil paints and linseed oil Hydrogen Bonds make water
cohesive sticky HYDROGEN BONDING ANIMATION http://w3.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/02/ch2c4.html Water and hydrogen bonding http://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology/Biology11 11/animations/hydrogenbonds.html Surface Tension is due to these cohesive forces
SOME IONIC COMPOUNDS DISSOLVE WELL IN WATER Ionic Compounds have Polar Ionic Bonds: TABLE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE IS AN IONIC COMPOUND Animation of the formation of sodium chloride ionic compound http://w3.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/02/ch2c
3.html Salt dissolving in water is a physical change Sodium chloride dissolves in water because both are polar compounds Salt dissolving in water animations http://programs.northlandcollege.edu/ biology/Biology1111/animations/ dissolve.html
What direction did the water move? Toward the salty side or not salty side? View different concentrations on the movement of water in and out of a cell http://www.zerobio.com/flashmx/ transport.swf http://physioweb.med.uvm.edu/bodyfluids/
osmosis.htm What happens to a Red Blood cell as it is dropped into a solution of water? http://www.usd.edu/%7Ebgoodman/ Osmos.htm Hyper/Hypo/Isotonic solutions http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/diffusion.html # How would you describe a hypertonic solution?
Hypotonic solution? Isotonic Solution? Interactivehttp://www.zerobio.com/flashmx/tonicity.swf http://www.zerobio.com/flashmx/thirst.swf http://www2.nl.edu/jste/osmosis.htm#Osmosis What if the concentration inside cells is naturally about 1% NaCl, then what concentrations of NaCl would be Hypertonic?
Hypotonic? Isotonic? Hyper/Hypo/Isotonic solutions http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/diffusio n.html# How would you describe a hypertonic solution? Hypotonic solution? Isotonic Solution?
If a dormant seed needs water to rehydrate which type if solution would work best? Closure word list - Covalent bond Ionic bond Polar Non-polar Hydrogen bonding Dissolving
Condition Possible causes respiratory acidosis apnea or impaired lung capacity, with a build-up of CO metabolic
acidosis ingestion of acid, production of ketoacids in uncontrolled diabetes, or kidney failure. (These all result in build-up of H 2 in the lungs.
+ from sources other than excess CO . ) 2 Condition Possible causes
respiratory alkalosis hyperventilation, with a net loss of CO metabolic alkalosis ingestion of alkali, prolonged vomiting (loss of HCl), or extreme dehydration leading to kidney retention of bicarbonate. (The
common thread is loss of H for reasons other than depletion of CO .) + 2 from the blood. 2
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