A C B Lifting and Back Safety Training Program 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 1 Learning Objectives Describe the two common types of back injuries Identify the key contributing factors to back injuries Describe the common disc degeneration factors and the
stages of disc degeneration Describe the common causes of back injuries Demonstrate proper lifting techniques and list steps in the Lifting Safety Checklist Discuss the three primary areas of back injury prevention A C B 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 2 Introduction More than 1 million workers suffer back injuries each year, accounting for more than 20% of all workplace injuries or illnesses. One fourth of all compensation claims involve back injuries, which cost employers billions of dollars
Second most common reason for doctor visits among U.S. citizens, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Two common classes of back injuries are: Soft tissue injuries involving muscle or ligament D = 24 in Injuries to the spinal disks 48 lbs V = 8 in 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC H = 20 in Page 3
Spinal Anatomy 101 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC The spines vertebrae are held together by ligaments Muscles are attached to the vertebrae by bands of tissue called tendons Between each vertebra is a cushion known as a disc Openings in each vertebra line up to form a long, hollow canal
The spinal cord runs through this canal from the base of the brain Nerves from the spinal cord branch out and leave the spine through the spaces between the vertebra The lower part of the back holds most of the bodys weight Page 4 Spinal Anatomy 101 - Intervertebral Discs The vertebrae are separated by Intervertebral discs which act as cushions between the bones. Each disc is made up of two parts - the hard, tough outer layer called the annulus surrounds a mushy, moist center termed the nucleus. 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 5 Disc Degeneration Factors
Many factors increase the risk of disc degeneration Lifestyle choices such as: 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Lack of regular exercise Inadequate nutrition Obesity Drug and tobacco Natural biochemical changes occurring with age cause discs to gradually dry out affecting disc strength and resiliency Poor posture Habitual use of incorrect body mechanics Page 6
Stages of Disc Degeneration Disc Degeneration: chemical changes associated with aging causes discs to weaken, but without a herniation. Prolapse: the position of the disc changes with some slight impingement into the spinal canal. Also called a bulge or protrusion. Extrusion: the gel-like nucleus pulposus breaks through the tire-like wall (annulus fibrosus) but remains within the disc. Sequestration: the nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus fibrosus and lies outside the disc in the spinal canal (HNP).
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 7 Physical Stress on Skeletal System The Forces Involved: Imagine your back as a lever. With the fulcrum in the center of the lever, how many pounds would it take to lift a 10 pound object? 5 pounds? 10 pounds? 15 pounds? ? 10 Lbs 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 8 Physical Stress on Skeletal System The Forces Involved: It takes 10 pounds of pressure to lift a 10 pound object. Will it take more or less force to lift the same 10 pound object with the fulcrum shifted away from the object?
? 10 Lbs 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 9 Physical Stress on Skeletal System The Forces Involved: With the fulcrum shifted away from the object, it takes more force to lift the object. The human back operates on a 10:1 lifting ratio, with the waist acting as the fulcrum. 10 Lbs 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 10 Physical Stress on Skeletal System The Forces Involved: When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, lifting a 10 pound object puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the human back. 1150 Lbs
105 Lbs 10 Lbs 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 11 Physical Stress on Skeletal System The Forces Involved: If you were 25 pounds overweight, it would put an additional 250 pounds of pressure on your back every time you bend over 1400 Lbs 130 Lbs 10 Lbs 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 12 Common Causes of Back Injuries Heavy Lifting especially repetitive lifting over a long period of time Twisting at the waist
while lifting or holding a heavy load Reaching and lifting over your head, across a table, or out the back of a truck Working in odd, uncomfortable positions tasks that require you to bend over for long periods of time Sitting or standing too long in one position sitting can be very hard on the lower back Slips, trips and falls 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 13 Other Common Causes Some people suffer back pain because they sleep in a bad position, or because their mattress is too soft. What is the best sleep position for your back? 1. On your stomach or back with legs level. 2. On your side with knees slightly bent. 3. On your back with a pillow under your knees. 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 14
Preventing Back Injuries Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can. If you must lift, the best zone for lifting is between your shoulders and your waist Place objects up off the floor so you wont have to reach down to get them Always use a dolly or a forklift if you can Pushing an object is better than pulling the object Don't overdo it - if you have to strain to carry the load, it's too heavy for you Make sure you have enough room to lift safely Look around before you lift and know where you are going to put down the load Avoid walking on slippery and uneven surfaces while carrying something
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Page 15 Preventing Back Injuries Use proper lifting procedure Plan your move
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Size up the load and make sure your path is clear. Get help as needed Use handles or straps Use a dolly or other materials handling equipment if possible. Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot slightly ahead of the other and with your heals on the floor Get as close to the load as possible Use your palms, not just your fingers to grasp the load Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins Keep your lower back in its normal arched position Pivot to turn - Dont twist your back Lower the load slowly, maintaining the curve in your lower back Page 16 Preventing Back Injuries More Lifting Tips Transferring weight
Lifting heavy bags 2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Pull object towards you while transferring your weight to the lift side Lift only to the level required Shift your weight to the other leg while pushing the object into position. Do not twist Put one knee down against bag Pull bag up leg Rest bag on edge of knee
Stand upright Pull bag to waist height Page 17 Preventing Back Injuries Lifting Safety Check List Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Is the load you want to lift packed right? Have a tight grip on the object Is it easy to reach this load?
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Make sure the weight is balanced and packed so it won't move around Loose pieces inside a box can cause accidents if the box becomes unbalanced Is it easy to grip this load? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily it moves. Remember, a small size does not always mean a light load You can be injured if you arch your back when lifting a load over your head To avoid hurting your back, use a ladder when you're lifting something over your head Page 18 Prevent Back Injuries Body Management
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Stretch early and stretch often Slow down; dont overdue it Take frequent micro breaks Sleep on a firm mattress Get in shape and stay in shape with regular exercise Page 19 Summary
2006 RiskAnalytics, LLC Back injuries are the leading cause of disability accounting for more than 20% of all workers comp claims Every time you bend over, lift a heavy object, or sit leaning forward, you put stress on your spine Two common types of back injuries are soft tissue and injuries to the intervertebral spinal discs Over time, the discs between your vertebrae can start to wear out and become damaged Factors contributing to back injuries include poor physical
condition, poor posture, excessive weight and stress The lift safety check includes checking the object before you lift, determining if it is packed correctly and insuring a proper grip Proper lifting technique includes planning the move, using a wide, balanced stance, getting as close to the load as possible and pivoting your feet versus twisting Page 20
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