Autonomy Part II: Architectures for Autonomy Objectives

Autonomy Part II: Architectures for Autonomy Objectives

4b System Architectures Can you make the architecture of AI for robots more tangible? What are the subsystems in a system architecture? I know a technical architecture depends on the implementation, but what goes into a technical architecture? http://brrism.blogspot.com/2010/07/brrism11-edemocracyopendatasocial.html 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 1 4b Specific Learning Objectives Be able to relate the functions in the canonical operational architecture to the 5 common subsystems Objectives Review Systems - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid

Technical Arch - evaluating Classify a systems architecture as being either hierarchical, reactive, or hybrid deliberative/reactive based on 1) the relationship of the 3 AI robot primitives and 2) sensing handling Be able to draw the Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive System Architecture 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 2 4b Systems Architectures: Outline Review Objectives Review Systems - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating 3 ways of generally organizing systems 5 common subsystems Why those 5? A historical evolution of Hierarchical, Reactive, Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive

Contributions to canonical system architecture A little about technical architectures (technical) Summary 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 3 4b Objectives Review Systems - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Recall: Types of architectures [Levis, George Mason University] operational architecture: describes what the systems does, not how it does it systems architecture: describes how a system works in terms of major subsystems technical architecture: implementation details, language 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 4

4b Types of architectures Class will focus on these levels Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating operational architecture: describes what the systems does, not how it does it systems architecture: describes how a system works in terms of major subsystems technical architecture: implementation details, language And the algorithms used at this level 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 5 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems

- Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating The Most Abstract Canonical Operational Architecture Upper brain or cortex Reasoning over symbols (information) about goals Middle brain Converting sensor data into symbols (information) Spinal Cord and lower brain Skills and responses Interaction Layer Deliberative Layer Reactive (or Behavioral) Layer 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 6 The Most Abstract Canonical Operational Architecture

4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Reactive Layer Interaction Layer Deliberative Layer Each layer has a different style of program organization Not concerned with details of interaction layer Behavioral Layer 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 7

More Tangible Canonical Operational Architecture 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating monitoring generating World plan model selecting sense implementing act sense sense act

act PRESENT+PAST+FUTURE, SLOW PRESENT+PAST, FAST PRESENT, VERY FAST 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 8 generating World model plan selecting implementing act sense sense act act REACTION

sense DELIBERATION 4b monitoring Reasoning over information about goals: Promising results: Navigation, payload planning, contingency replanning Open issues: Multi-agent replanning, fault recovery & reconfiguration, reasoning over multiple failures Converting sensor data into information: Promising results: ATR, single failure health monitoring Open issues: creation of world models & situation awareness, monitoring & detection of new threats, exceptions, opportunities Behaviors, skills and 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) responses 9 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid

Technical Arch - evaluating Types of architectures [Levis, George Mason University] operational architecture: describes what the systems does, not how it does it systems architecture: describes how a system works in terms of major subsystems technical architecture: implementation details, language 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 10 4b System Architectures Provide right subsystems Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Focus on good software engineering

Modular (object-oriented) Abstraction and cohesion Libraries of algorithms and data structures within a subsystem Can pick from library to fit a specific niche Platform neutral 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 11 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating WHAT ARE THE SUBSYSTEMS IN A SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE? Via A history of the three paradigms and example systems 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 12

Generally Accepted Subsystems (or Objects) 4b Navigation (Generating) Planning about navigational goals, path planning Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Cartographer, World Model, World Map (World Model) Everything to do with world models and planning over maps Planning (Generating mission, Implementing, Selecting, Monitoring)

Motor Schemas, Behaviors (executing motor commands) Perception, Sensing, Perceptual Schemas (executing sensor input) From Technology Development for Army Unmanned Ground Vehicles 2002, National Research Council 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 13 4b Generally Accepted Subsystems Navigation (Generating) Planning about navigational goals, path planning Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid

Technical Arch - evaluating Cartographer, World Model, World Map (World Model) Everything to do with world models and planning over maps ld u o w n o i r o at g e i Planning (Generating mission, r v afor Army Unmannedt Ground aFrom Technology lDevelopment c N

h t n o Implementing, Selecting, Monitoring) Vehicles 2002, National Researchb Council o a e s o h r u c r A o o f f ? s t e n n h o in

i ie t c g a n Motor N Schemas, ffi c i ote t Behaviors li iv su p r p d e a (executing motor commands) b r O s? nt r ? e r a

this m o c t r in a l e a t u h r t p e o ni h Perception, Perceptual a t entSensing, i m asensor input) cw Schemas (executing h t ffi

i a w tr y v hea 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 14 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Describing Systems Architectures in AI Robotics Subsystems can be thought of in terms of 2 attributes 1. (relationship) How 3 building blocks, or robot primitives, are arranged 2. (content) How sensing is handled This leads to 3 paradigms of system architectures for AI robotics Hierarchical

Reactive Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 15 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Recall: AI Primitives within an Agent SENSE PLAN ACT LEARN 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 16 4b

Hierarchical (1967) SENSE PLAN ACT Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 17 4b Hierarchical (1967) SENSE Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical

-Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating PLAN ACT Control people hated because didnt close the loop AI people hated because monolithic Users hated because very slow 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 18 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Hierarchical Paradigm for Operational Architectures

Advantages of Hierarchies (Albus, Mystel 01) Natural way to organize Not intrinsically rigid Not intrinsically inefficient not the same as centralized planning priorities and goals are clear, therefore efficient 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 19 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Hierarchical Paradigm: Sequence of 3 Primitives SENSE PLAN ACT 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019)

20 4b Hierarchical Paradigm: Sensing is Centralized (global) SENSE PLAN ACT World model is a fused global data structure. It combines: 1. A priori representation 2. Sensed info 3. Cognitive understanding 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 21 4b Hierarchical Paradigm: Notable Systems Architectures STRIPS/GPS (Nilsson) Objectives Review

System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Not used anymore, but did spawn planning industry Shakey 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 22 4b Shakey First AI robot Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Built by SRI

(Stanford Research Institute) for DARPA 1967-9 Used Strips as main algorithm for controlling what to do 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 23 4b Hierarchical Paradigm: Notable Systems Architectures STRIPS/GPS (Nilsson) Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Not used anymore, but did spawn planning industry Shakey Nested Hierarchical Controller or NHC (Mystel) Mostly theoretical, oriented towards navigation

Divided into subsystems: mission planner, navigator, pilot, world model, low-level controllers 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 24 4b Nested Hierarchical Controller (Meystel) Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 25 4b NHC Planner Objectives Review System Arch

- 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 26 4b Hierarchical Paradigm: Notable Systems Architectures STRIPS/GPS (Nilsson) Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Not used anymore, but did spawn planning industry Shakey Nested Hierarchical Controller or NHC (Mystel) Mostly theoretical, oriented towards navigation

Divided into subsystems: mission planner, navigator, pilot, world model, low-level controllers NIST Real-time Control System or RCS (Albus) Integrated NHC and modified: sensory processing, world model, behavior generation, value judgment Initially adopted by military in late 1980s, later versions try to retrofit to hybrid Army UGV/XUV program 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 27 4b Demo III XUV Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating http://museum.nist.gov/exhibits/timeline/item.cfm?itemId=38 Experimental Unmanned Vehicle in action at Ft. Indiantown Gap. Photo courtesy of the Army Research Labs. Nov. 2001 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019)

28 4b Demo III Control Hierarchy Section 10m PLANNER vehicle1 vehicle2 Vehicle 1m VEHICLE PLANNER communications plan AM plan RSTA plan Subsystem 5s COMMS PLANNER message list Primitive 500ms Servo 50ms AM PLANNER Driver Plan Gaze plan DRIVER PLANNER Velocity Plan RSTA PLANNER gaze plan GAZE PLANNER

Stereo Gaze Plan LADAR Gaze Plan VELOCITY PLANNER F Wheels R Wheels F Steer R Steer F Wheel R Wheel F Steer F Steer 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 29 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating c Disadvantages of Hierarchical Organizational Architectures While hierarchies have advantages, relying on a world model creates problems

Bottleneck on processing, particularly for control Alternative is to create layers or hierarchies within the world model to match other subsystems (Kaebling, Simmons) World model requires extensive representation which leads to two major problems: Operates under the closed world assumption Frame problem In practice, implementations are planning-centric 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 30 4b Reactive (1986) SENSE Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating ACT PLAN SENSE

ACT SENSE ACT 1 2 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 31 4b Reactive (1986) SENSE Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating ACT PLAN

SENSE ACT SENSE ACT Users loved it because it worked AI people loved it, but wanted to put PLAN back in 1 2 Control people hated it because couldnt rigorously prove it worked 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 32 4b Reactive Paradigm: Two primitives grouped into concurrent behaviors SENSE ACT PLAN SENSE

ACT SENSE ACT SENSE-ACT couplings are behaviors Behaviors are independent, run in parallel, output is emergent 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 33 4b Reactive Paradigm: Sensing is behavior specific (local) SENSE ACT PLAN SENSE ACT SENSE ACT

SENSE-ACT couplings are behaviors Behaviors are independent, run in parallel, output is emergent 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 34 4b Reactive Robots RELEASER Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating SENSE behavior ACT Behaviors (independent processes), released by perceptual or internal events (state)

No world models or long term memory Highly modular, generic Overall behavior emerges 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 35 4b Reactive Paradigm: Notable Systems Architectures Subsumption (Brooks) Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating No subsystems, just layers of competence AuRA (Arkin) Potential field implementation Will cover in great detail later 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019)

36 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Seriously, what can you without planning? 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 37 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Robomow

Behaviors? Random Avoid Avoid(bump=obstacle) Avoid(wire=boundary) Stop Stop(tilt=ON) All active www.friendlymachines.com 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 38 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating My Real Baby

Behaviors? Touch-> Awake Upside down & Awake-> Cry Awake & Hungry -> Cry Awake & Lonely -> Cry www.irobot.com Note can get crying from multiple behaviors 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 39 4b Reactive Robots Among Us (not so obvious) www.disney.com Disney Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating

Animatronics Animation! Hunchback of Notre Dame Web search engines Appliances www.pfn.com/vision/default.cfm 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 40 4b Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive (1990) PLAN Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating SENSE SENSE SENSE ACT

ACT ACT 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 41 4b Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive (1990) PLAN Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating SENSE SENSE SENSE ACT ACT ACT Control people hated it because no models at the lowest level, but are getting

over it AI people loved it Users loved it 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 42 4b Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive: Plan, then Sense-Act PLAN Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating SENSE SENSE SENSE ACT ACT ACT Plan, then sense-act until task is complete or need to change; Note movement towards event-driven planning rather than continuous

2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 43 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Hybrid Paradigm: Sensing Organization is Shared SENSOR 3 WORLD MAP/ KNOWLEDGE REP virtual sensor SENSOR 1 BEHAVIOR BEHAVIOR SENSOR 2

Deliberative functions Can eavesdrop Can have their own sensors Have output which looks like a sensor output to a behavior(virtual sensor) ACTUATORS BEHAVIOR 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 44 4b The Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive System Architecture: the Heart of the Canonical Operational and System Architecture Social Interface cartographer Performance & Problem Solving Sensing Effectors Resource Mgr

World World model World model model Mission Planner Sequencer Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 45 4b Contributions of 3 Different Styles Social Interface Managerial (division of responsibilities looks like in business)

AuRA (Arkin) cartographer Performance & Problem Solving Sensing Effectors Resource Mgr World World model World model model Mission Planner Sequencer Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 46

4b Contributions of 3 Different Styles Social Interface Managerial (division of responsibilities looks like in business) cartographer Performance & Problem Solving Sensing Effectors Resource Mgr World World model World model model Mission Planner AuRA (Arkin)

State Hierarchies (strictly by time scope) 3T (Bonasso, Kortenkamp, Firby, Gat) Sequencer Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 47 4b Contributions of 3 Different Styles Social Interface Managerial (division of responsibilities looks like in business) cartographer Performance & Problem Solving

Sensing Effectors World World model World model model Mission Planner Resource Mgr Sequencer State Hierarchies (strictly by time scope) 3T (Bonasso, Kortenkamp, Firby, Gat) Model-Oriented (models serve as virtual sensors, multiple world models Behavior

Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior AuRA (Arkin) Saphira (Konolige), TCA (Simmons) 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 48 4b Systems Architecture Systems architectures have evolved around functions and around paradigm Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating The hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm won the paradigm wars Most extensible and reusable

More modular Hierarchical systems are still favored by DoD and NASA because of perceived efficiency and deterministic 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 49 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating WHAT GOES INTO THE TECHNICAL ARCHITECTURE? 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 50 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems

- Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Technical Details Algorithms such as Hough transforms, genetic algorithms, neural networks, path planning, fuzzy logic, scheduling, resource allocation Data structures such as potential fields, perceptual spaces, polar plots Algorithms for coordination and control of software modules such as island driving, vector summation, subsumption, voting, production rules Displays and interfaces such as natural language, gestures 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 51 4b Software-Service Flavor Software as a service extension to object-oriented programming Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical

-Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Modules/functions are used rather than owned Independent of programming language Stateless Practical ramifications Libraries that subsystems draw from dynamically Contain logicially equivalent routines with methods to adapt them Ability to store, distribute those libraries off-board (at a control center) Proxy processing, centralized control Use resources of other agents (group minds like Vinges Fire Upon the Deep) 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 52 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating

Evaluating the Technical Architecture support for modularity: decomposition by functionality specified by the systems architecture niche targetability: Can be adapted to domains ease of portability to other domains: Infrastructure code should be reusable robustness: Often neglected beyond reactive system tendency to do the right thing 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 53 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating SUMMARY AND ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019)

54 4b Objectives Review System Arch - 5 Subsystems - Paradigms -Hierarchical -Reactive -Hybrid Technical Arch - evaluating Summary: Architectures An architecture is the Big Picture of how to program an intelligent robot. Architecture in AI robotics is often refers to The operational architecture which captures the functionality Three layers Reactive Deliberative Interface The system architecture developed by a researcher or research group Three paradigms for the system architecture Hierarchical Reactive

Hybrid deliberative/reactive The technical architecture, usually a novel technique such as potential fields The operational and system architecture influences the technical architecture 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 55 4b Summary Can you make the architecture more tangible? Have functions, the hybrid deliberative/reactive architecture which gives 3 layers What are the subsystems in a system architecture? Navigation (Generating) Cartographer, World Model, World Map (World Model) Planning (Generating mission, Implementing, Selecting, Monitoring) Motor Schemas, Behaviors (executing motor commands Perception, Sensing, Perceptual Schemas (executing sensor input)

BUT THIS IS NOT ALL THAT IS NEEDED OR POSSIBLE What goes into a technical architecture? Specific algorithms, control/coordination, knowledge structures 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 56 4b Next Lecture So far- AI is good with symbols (deliberative) and good with skills (reactive) and has ignored people (interface) - its the conversion of sensor data in the middle that is holding up progress Telesystems How do we put people in the loop to compensate for the problems in converting sensor data to symbols, i.e., telesystem as a workaround? How intelligent does a robot need to be for people who want to work remotely through it, such as for telecommuting, telemedicine, surveillance, etc., i.e., telesystem for remote presence? 2019 Robin Murphy Introduction to AI Robotics 2 nd Edition (MIT Press 2019) 57

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