Automatic Tactilization of Graphical Images and Image ...

Automatic Tactilization of Graphical Images and Image ...

Accessibility Research CSE 590W Spring 2009 Richard Ladner University of Washington 1 Computer Scientists Christian Vogler TV Raman 2

Computer Scientists Chieko Asakawa IBM Japan Hideji Nagaoka Tsukuba U. of Tech 3 Engineer Iraq War Veteran Jonathan Kuniholm 4 Geerat Vermeij

Geerat Vermeij, Ph.D. Evolutionary Biologist 5 Steven Hawking 6 UW Students Zach Lattin Math Major

Sangyun Hahn Ph.D. Student CSE 7 5 The Message People with disabilities can do almost anything in almost any scientific field. People with disabilities are often highly motivated to pursue careers in accessibility research. 8

What Well Do Today Models of Disability Data History Disability and HCI Accessibility Research at UW Discussion 9

Models of Disability Medical Model Disabled people are patients who need treatment and/or cure. Rehabilitation Model Disabled people need assistive technology for employment and everyday life. Legal Model Disabled people are citizens who have rights and responsibilities like other citizens. Accessibility to public buildings and spaces, voting, television, and telephone are some of those rights. Social Model Disabled people are part of the diversity of life, not necessarily in need of treatment and cure. They do need access when

possible. 10 Technology Prosthesis Augmentation to restore lost function. Call it a cure. Assistive technology Popular in rehabilitation literature. Emphasis on the need for assistance. Access technology Allows an activity that would be difficult to impossible to achieve without it. Emphasis not on restoring function, but on achieving an end goal by whatever means possible.

Examples: Screen readers, video phones, wheel chairs 11 What Well Do Today Models of Disability Data History Disability and HCI Accessibility Research at UW Discussion

12 Basic Data 16% of US population to ages 15 to 64 is disabled. 10% of the workforce is disabled 5% of the STEM workforce is disabled 1% of PhDs in STEM are disabled 13 Demographics General Population Number (in thousands) Percent

30000 18 16 25000 14 20000 12 10 15000 Number

Percent 8 10000 6 4 5000 2 0 0 With a disability Difficulty seeing Difficulty hearing Difficulty with speech

Difficulty walking/using stairs Learning disability Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2002 14 Demographics Ages 14-21 Percent 100 80

Specific learning disabilities Visual impairments 60 Hearing impairments 40 Orthopedic impairments 20 Multiple Other 0

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, www.ideadata.org 15 What Well Do Today Models of Disability Data History Disability and HCI

Accessibility Research at UW Discussion 16 CHI Disability Search Year 1982 85

1986 90 1990 95 1996 00 2001 05 2006 08 Number 0 10 (4%) 15 (5%) 20 (6%) 90 (23%) 71 (17%) (3 years) 17 Earliest CHI Papers - 1987

A case example of human factors in product definition: needs finding for a voice output workstation for the blind Richard M. Kane, Matthew Yuschik A user interface for deaf-blind people Richard Ladner, Randy Day, Dennis Gentry, Karin Meyer, Scott Rose Towards universality of access: interfacing physically disabled students to the Icon educational microcomputer Gerbrand Verburg, Debbie Field, Francois St. Pierre, Stephen Naumann 18

Other Conferences ASSETS ACM ICCHP Europe CSUN Cal State Northridge ATIA Industry Conference W4A Collocated with WWW 19

What Well Do Today Models of Disability Data History Disability and HCI Accessibility Research at UW Discussion 20

UW Faculty Involvement Richard Ladner (CSE) Dan Weld (CSE) James Landay (CSE)

Gaetano Borriello (CSE) Yoky Matsuoka (CSE) Jake Wobbrock (Information School) Eve Riskin (EE) Mari Ostendorf (EE) Jeff Bilmes (EE) Julie Kientz (ISchool and TC) Shwetak Patel (CSE,EE) 21 UW Research Students with Disabilities

Shawn Kane* Sangyun Hahn* Zack Lattin* Lindsay Yazzolino* Stewart Olsen* Matt Starn Jason Schwebke Annemarie Poginy*

Tim Shockley* Jessie Shulman * Andy Martin* Barbara Wagreich* *Co-authors 22 VoiceDraw 2007-8 National Scholar Award for Workplace Innovation & Design, 2nd place Susumu Harada, Jeff Bilmes, James Landay 23

WebAnywhere Jeff Bigham - Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Award for Technology Collaboration (2008) - Microsoft Imagine Cup Accessible Technology Award (2008) - W4A Accessibility Challenge Delegates Award (2008) 24 Supple

CHI 2008 Best Paper Award Krzysztof Z Gajos, Jacob O. Wobbrock and Daniel S. Weld. 25 ANATOMICALLY CORRECT TESTBED ROBOTIC HAND Yoky Matsuoka MacArthur Foundation Award 2007 26 Other Centers of Excellence University of Wisconsin TRACE Center

Carnegie Mellon University / University of Pittsburgh Quality of Life Center Georgia Institute of Technology University of Colorado MIT 27 What Well Do Today

Models of Disability Data History Disability and HCI Accessibility Research at UW Discussion 28 Concepts in HCI User Centered Design Involve the user at every step Universal Design Design for all users, if possible

Design for User Empowerment Design to enable people to solve their own accessibility problems, if possible 29 Lab vs. Field Studies Lab + Log every event, maybe even mental activity + Control the variables + Same tasks - Limited time - Applicability may be suspect Field + Log many events, but not all

+ Unlimited time + Applicability assured - Different tasks - User logging might be inaccurate 30 Challenges Fitts Law for blind people Original Fitts law is actual a psycho-visualmotor law not just a psycho-motor law as claimed. Could lead to a better screen reader? Purpose of Research Publication? Dissemination and Deployment? 31

su m us try Co n d In er s

Collaboration Meaningful Access Technology Researchers 32

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