Arthrology & Joints of Bones of Trunk By Dr.Pardeep Kumar Arthrology It is a science concerned with the study of joints. In order to serve the purposes of protection
and movement, the bones must be joined together one another by connective tissue at different parts of their surfaces, and such connections are termed Joints or Articulations. Classification of joints Joints Synarthrosis Fibrous
Cartilagenous Diarthrosis Synovial Synarthrosis A synarthrosis is a type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions. The synarthrosis occurs between the bones that is almost direct
contact, fastened together by intervening connective tissue or hyaline cartilage, and in which there is no appreciable motion. It includes the Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Synostosis. Fibrous Joints (Fixed joint) The joints that are held together by dense fibrous tissue No movement occurs in these joints except syndesmoses
which allows little movement Types of Fibrous Tissue: a) Suture b) Syndesmoses c) Gomphosis Sutures 1.Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull 2.Immovable (synarthroses) 3.If fuse completely in adults is synostosis
Syndesmoses Type of fibrous joint where the bones are united by interoseous ligament & the bones concerned are some distance apart Such ligaments persists throughout life and a slight movement is possible e.g. Radioulnar joint, Tibiofibular joint. Gomphosis It is a specialized articulation restricted to the fixation of teeth in the maxilla & mandible
Cartilaginous Joints (slightly movable joint) The joints that are held together by cartilage Here a little amount of movement is possible. 2 types synchondrosis symphysis Synchondrosis 1. The Hyaline cartilage in these joint is temporary in nature & is replaced completely by bone. e.g. Between Epiphysis & Diaphysis of a growing long bone
2. Immovable 4. It is a temporary form of joint Symphysis 1.Fibrocartilage is connecting material 2. Slightly movable 3. Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis Difference between primary & secondary cartilaginous joint
Synchondroses The articular cartilage is hyaline in nature
Immovable Temporary The cartilage are ossified after a period of growth Present in growing end of bone E.g. Joint between epiphyses & Diaphysis
Symphysis Hyaline cartilage but in between them there is a layer of fibro cartilage It allows little movement
Usually permanent Not so All are present in the midline of the body E.g. Pubic symphysis, joint between the bodies of the vertebrae Synostosis The bones are united by the ossification of the fibrous joint or synchondrosis between them, e. g. , the synosteosis
between the ilium, ischium and pubis of the hip bones. Diarthroses Synovial Joints Synovial joints are freely movable joints that contain synovial fluid in a cavity surrounding the ends of articulating bones. Essential structures of synovial joints Articular surface: covered
by articular cartilage articular head articular fossa Articular capsule Fibrous membrane Synovial membrane Articular cavity: containing a trace of synovial fluid; subatmospheric pressure in
it Characteristics The participating bones are held together by an articular capsule It is composed of an outer fibrous capsule & an inner synovial membrane Synovial membrane lines the whole of the interior of the joint cavity except the articular surface Articular surface are covered by articular cartilage Characteristics They are separated by narrow space called joint cavity
Cavity contains a colourless, transparent, viscous fluid, rich in hyaluronic acid called synovial fluid Joint cavity may contain some intra articular structures like articular disc, meniscus etc. Movement is permitted from limited to a wide range. Synovial membrane Synovial membrane inner lining of capsule secretes synovial fluid containing hyaluronic acid (slippery)
brings nutrients to articular cartilage Synovial Bursa It is a closed connective tissue sac lined with synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid. Types Subtendinous e.g. Biceps and subscapularis bursa Articular e.g. subacromial bursa Subcutaneous e.g. pre patellar bursa Functions Diminishes friction Allows free movement
Helps in lubrication Intra articular Structures Cartilaginous structure Articular Disc Articular Menisci Glenoid Labrum Ligaments traversing the joints Ligamentum Teres of hip joint Cruciate ligament of Knee joint Muscle Tendon Long head of Biceps- Shoulder Joint Tendon of Popliteus- Knee Joint
Articular Disc / Articular Menisci These are the fibro cartilaginous structures between articular surfaces dividing the joint cavity completely or incompletely Articular Meniscus divides the joint incompletely into two compartments Complete - e g. Sterno clavicular joint Incomplete e.g. Knee joint Functions Acts as a buffer & shock absorber Strengthen the joint Smooth in the articulation between the bony surfaces
Articular Labra It is a fibrocartilaginous annular lip which is attached to the margin of an articular surface E.g. Glenoid cavity & acetabulum Articular fat pad These are accumulation of adipose tissue present in many synovial joints They are covered by synovial membrane E.g. Hip Joint Makes the joint cavity uniform Increase surface area of synovial joint
Uniaxial joints --Hinge Joint Convex surface of one bones fits into concave surface of 2nd bone Uniaxial like a door hinge Examples Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints Movements produced flexion = decreasing the joint angle extension = increasing the angle hyperextension = opening the
joint beyond the anatomical position Flexion, Extension & Hyperextension Uniaxial joints --Pivot Joint Rounded surface of bone articulates with ring formed by 2nd bone & ligament Monoaxial since it allows only rotation
around longitudinal axis Examples Proximal radioulnar joint supination pronation Atlanto-axial joint turning head side to side no Biaxial joints Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joint
Oval-shaped projection fits into oval depression Biaxial = flex/extend or abduct/adduct is possible Examples wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints for digits 2 to 5 Adduction and Abduction Condyloid joints Ball and Socket joints Biaxial joints Saddle Joint
One bone saddled-shaped; other bone fits as a person would sitting in that saddle Biaxial Circumduction allows tip of thumb travel in circle Opposition allows tip of thumb to touch tip of other fingers Example trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of the thumb Multiaxial joints
Ball and Socket Joint Ball fitting into a cuplike depression Multiaxial flexion/extension abduction/adduction rotation circumduction Examples shoulder joint hip joint
Multiaxial joints Plane Joint Bone surfaces are flat or slightly curved Side to side movement only Rotation prevented by ligaments Examples intercarpal or intertarsal joints
sternoclavicular joint vertebrocostal joints The joints of the bones of trunk The vertebral column 1 The vertebral joints nucleus pulposus The intervertebral disc The joints of the vertebral bodies
The joints of the vertebral arches annulus fibrosus The anterior longitudinal ligament The posterior longitudinal ligament Interspinal ligament Supraspinal ligament Intertransverse ligament The joint of articular process
2 The vertebral column as a whole and its movements Anterior aspect The vertebral column as a whole Dorsal aspect Lateral aspect (4 curves) flexion and extension The movement of the vertebral column rotation
circumduction The Thorax The costovertebral joints 1 Costovertebral joint The costotransverse joints 2 Sternocostal joints : true, false and floating rib Superior 2 openings 3 walls 3 The thorax ( thoracic cage) as a whole
inferior infrasternal angle intercostal space Articulations of Bones of Trunk The vertebral column consists of 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.
Joints of the vertebral bodies Intervertebral discs between bodies of adjacent vertebrae, composed of: Nucleus pulposus, an inner soft, pulpy, highly elastic structure (gelatinous core ) Annulus fibrosus an outer fibrous ring
consisting of fibrocartilage Hemination of nucleus pulposus Anterior longitudinal ligament Strong band covering the anterior part of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs running from the anterior margin of foramen magnum to the S1~S2 Maintains stability of the intervertebral
disc and prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column Posterior longitudinal ligament Attached to the posterior aspect of the intervertebral discs and posterior edges of the vertebral bodies from C2 vertebra to sacrum Prevents hyperflexion of the vertebral column and posterior protrusion of the discs
Joints of the vertebral arches Ligamenta flava elastic ligament, unite laminae of adjacent vertebrae, and complete the posterior wall of vertebral canal; tend to prevent hyperflexion of the
vertebral column Interspinal ligament Supraspinal ligament Intertansverse ligament Atlantooccipital joint Between superior articulating surfaces of atlas and occipital condyles Supported by membrances and
ligaments that join occipital bone and atlas Action nodding of head, lateral tilting of head Atlantoaxial joint Three synovial joints between atlas and axis Laterally, paired joints
between articulating facets Median joint between dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas Supported by ligaments apical ligament of dens alar ligament transverse ligament of atlas tectorial membrane
Action allow atlas (and head) to pivot on the axis and vertebral column Normal Curves of vertebral column Cervical curvature convex forward Thoracic curvature convex backward Lumbar curvature
convex forward Sacral curvature convex backward Movement of the vertebral column flexion extension lateral flexion rotation Thoracic cage
Composition Bones consists of twelve thoracic vertebrae, twelve pairs of ribs and costal cartilages, and sternum Joints Costovertebral joints Joints of costal head Costotransverse joints
Sternocostal joints Sternocostal synchondrosis of first rib Sternocostal joints Interchondral joints: between costal cartilages 8, 9, and 10 to form the costal arch General features of thoracic cage Roughly cone-shape, narrow
above and broad below, flattened from beforebackwards, longer behind than in front Inlet of thorax: bounded by upper border of manubrium, first rib, and vertebra T1 Outlet of thorax: bounded by vertebra T12, 12th and 11th ribs, costal arch and xiphoid process Infrasternal angle: formed by the costal arch of both side Intercostal spaces: lie
between the ribs Function: protects the organs in the thoracic cavity and upper abdominal cavity; plays a vital role in the process of breathing Inspiration Expiration Joints of skull
Continuous joints: sutures, synchondrosis or synosteosis Temporomandibular joint Aticulating surfaces Mandibular fossa and articular tubercle, above Head of mandibule, below Capsule: thin and lax in front
and behind; strengthened by the lateral ligament Articular disc: separates surfaces, forming upper and lower compartments within joint Movement: mandible may be elevated or depressed, protruded or retracted; rotation may also occurs as in chewing( a slight amount of side to side movement is also permitted)
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