Arch lengthening and expansion Arch lengthening Increasing the arch length using distal
movement of posterior teeth or proclination of incisors Arch expansion Management of narrow arches by
increasing the upper or lower intercanine, inter-premolar and/or intermolar width Arch width changes with age
Male arches wider than female Lower intercanine width increases up to change to permanent dentition Upper and lower inter-molar width increases between ages 7 to 18
Little change in premolar width after age 12 Arch expansion
Indications for arch expansion Correction of posterior cross-bite Elimination of a displacement Avoiding creation of a cross-bite in
cases needing distal movement of upper buccal segments V shaped arch in a thumb-sucker Preparation for a bone graft in a cleft
alveolus Child with < 31mm of inter-molar width at age 7 yrs. Is unlikely to attain adequate arch dimensions through normal growth alone
Minimal crowding in upper arch (1-2 mm) Interceptive orthodontics Mobilization of maxillary sutural system
for orthopedic correction of early CL III Initial preparation for functional jaw orthopedics (FR III), facial mask therapy and orthognathic surgery
Clinical points Expansion where posterior teeth are tilted lingually may be expected to be stable Stable expansion of lower intercanine
width unlikely unless canines lingually displaced Expansion more likely to be stable in absence of extractions
Correction of bilateral cross-bites is controversial: they may be left untreated if there is no displacement the decision will depend on the pretreatment inclination of the teeth and width of the underlying maxilla
Over-expansion is advisable in anticipation of some relapse Increase in inter-molar width produces linear reduction in arch depth
1mm of arch expansion causes 0.3mm reduction in arch length ( equates to 0.6 mm space creation within the arch) Claims that expansion improves nasal respiration equivocal
relapse Up to 40 % relapse has been found with all forms of active expansion Occurs via lingual tilting of molars
Relapse less with fixed retainer than URA complications Over expansion can cause scissors bite
Possible periodontal damage (equivocal evidence) Increase in MMP angle and lower face height thus worsening AOB
Appliances used for maxillary expansion URA Design consists of an acrylic base plate which
incorporates springs and retention clasps Relies on patient to turn screw two quarter turns per week Needs adequate seating and retention to produce expansion as the main effect is that
of tipping Coffin springs are less well tolerated and retained but can provide differential expansion laterally and anteroposteriorly Coffin springs provide a continuous as
opposed to interrupted orthodontic force Rapid maxillary expander Design consists of an active plate, which incorporates a jackscrew which is attached to
the teeth with wirework or acrylic Patient turns a Hyrax screw once a day (0.20.5 mm/day) for 1-3 weeks (midline diastema develops quickly) May produce more bodily movement than other appliances
There is evidence that mid palatal suture does split producing maxillary expansion RME contd. Limitations are :
Amount of available bone for expansion Controversial evidence: periodontal breakdown compared with URA Care in choosing age for RME, due to resistance to maxillary base expansion
which needs prolonged retention RME contd. Bonded acrylic RME has occlusal coverage to reduce tipping and
extrusion of molars No significant differences between bonded and banded RME Surgically assisted RME
To overcome problems of expansion in non growing patients Use buccal corticotomy or Le Forte 1 osteotomy and/or midpalatal splits in conjunction with hyrax screw
Claims: Less periodontal support loss -----unsubstantiated Increase in nasal air flow ------ unsubstantiated Evidence :
Surgical and non-surgical techniques ; no difference in stability of expansion after one year Non-surgical expansion allows sufficient expansion in adults
Problems : Surgical procedure associated with morbidity and risks Risk of nasal septum deviation
Quad /tri /bi helix Bi-helix used in mandibular arch in grossly narrowed or distorted arches, or to aid correction of a severe scissors bite Some differential expansion of inter-molar
width possible (however changes in patients original archform may not be stable) Quad helix / tri helix fixed or removable, are useful in cleft cases Activated by half a tooths width on either side
Provides some differential expansion and can derotate molars May produce less dental tipping than URA Unlike URA ,fixed quad helix is not reliable on patients compliance
Fixed appliances Limited amount of expansion possible with fixed appliance alone Requires rectangular wire to prevent
unfavorable dental tipping Unilateral expansion possible but requires placement of buccal root torque on correct side to prevent tipping
Functional appliances Produce active expansion ( usually with either expansion screw or palatal arch) to prevent cross bite formation whilst a CL I relation is being obtained
Frankel appliance produces passive expansion only by removing influence of buccal tissues with buccal shields Arch lengthening
indications Non extraction cases with only very mild crowding (1-2 mm)
Any change in original arch form is likely to collapse, so lengthening must be kept to a minimum Half unit CL II molar relationship in a nonextraction case Correction of incisal relationship in CL III case by
proclination if upper incisors Regain space lost by early loss of deciduous teeth Correction of retroclined mandibular incisors in CL II/2 cases,or CL II/1 cases with mandibular
incisors trapped in palate Arch lengthening procedures Distalisation of upper buccal segments
Distalisation of lower buccal segments Proclination of upper or lower incisors Distalisation of upper buccal segments
HG with URA ( palatal finger springs to upper 6s, bite plane, HG to 6s tubes) HG with no URA HG to 6s tubes only. May take longer as there is no finger springs to prevent to prevent relapse during the day when
HG is not worn Distalising super elastic Nickel titanium coil springs Magnets supported with CL II traction Active palatal arch (TPA)
Distalisation of lower buccal segments Lip bumper ; not well tolerated Removable appliance and HG
Proclination of upper or lower incisors URA ( split screw anteriorly, Z springs or T springs)
ELSA (expansion and labial segment alignment appliance); recurved spring or wiper arms to procline incisors Labial crown torque ( rectangular wire in FA ) Avoiding the use of lace backs in CL III
maxillary incisors Side effect of some FA is to procline the mandibular incisors if there is no incisal capping
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