APES REVIEW - Chino Valley Unified School District

APES REVIEW - Chino Valley Unified School District

APES STUDY GUIDE Test Date: _______________________ Topics: I. Earth Systems and Resources (1015%) II. The Living World (1015%) III. Population (1015%) IV. Land and Water Use (1015%) V. Energy Resources and Consumption (1015%)

VI. Pollution (2530%) VII. Global Change (1015%) I. Earth Systems and Resources A. Earth Science Concepts Geologic time scale; plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism; seasons; solar intensity and latitude

B. The Atmosphere Composition; structure; weather and climate; atmospheric circulation and the Coriolis Effect; atmosphereocean interactions; ENSO C. Global Water Resources and Use Freshwater/saltwater; ocean circulation; agricultural, industrial, and domestic use; surface and groundwater issues; global problems; conservation

D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Rock cycle; formation; composition; physical and chemical properties; main soil types; erosion and other soil problems; soil conservation A. Earth Science Concepts Geological Time Scale

Eon Era Period Epoch Age A. Earth Science Concepts

Radiometric Dating & Half Life Continental Drift & Seafloor Spreading A. Earth Science Concepts Earth Structure- Diagram includes: crust

(continental/oceanic), lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, inner core, outer core A. Earth Science Concepts 3 types of plates/boundaries (tectonics)- Convection Currents-

A. Earth Science Concepts How do Earthquakes arise? Body vs Surface Waves What are Tsunamis?

A. Earth Science Concepts How do volcanos work? What are the effects of volcanos? A. Earth Science Concepts

What are the factors that control seasons? What is the relationship between solar intensity and latitude? B. The Atmosphere Composition of Atmosphere 7 different compounds, their formula & % composition

B. The Atmosphere Structure/Layers of Atmosphere B. The Atmosphere Difference between weather and climate?

Factors that influence climate- B. The Atmosphere Air Circulation Cells B. The Atmosphere What is the relationship between atmospheric

circulation and the Coriolis Effect? El Nino (ENSO) vs La Nina C. Global Water Resources and Use Important Properties of Water Solubility

Specific Heat Adhesion Cohesion Density of Ice C. Global Water Resources and Use Percent of Freshwater _____ Saltwater ______

How is the water in the oceans circulated? C. Global Water Resources and Use List use & conservation in each sector. Agricultural Industrial

Domestic C. Global Water Resources and Use What are some issues facing water resources? Surface Issues

Ground water issues C. Global Water Resources and Use Global Water Problems Subsidence vs. Sinkhole Saltwater Intrusion

Water Shortages Dams C. Global Water Resources and Use Water Case Studies

Case Study: Ogallala Aquifer Case Study: Mexico City Case Study: Aswan High Damn Case Study: California Water Project

D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Rock Cycle - formation/composition, physical & chemical properties D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Soil Composition (clay, gravel, loam, sand, silt) Soil triangle

D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Soil Horizons What are some problems associated with soil and explain importance of soil management?

D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Components of Soil Quality Aeration Compaction Permeability pH Nutrient-Holding

Water-Holding D. Soil and Soil Dynamics Soil Degradation Desertification Salinization

Waterlogging D. Soil and Soil Dynamics What are ways to conserve soil? II. The Living World

A. Ecosystem Structure Biological populations and communities; ecological niches; interactions among species; keystone species; species diversity and edge effects; major terrestrial & aquatic biomes B. Energy Flow Photosynthesis and cellular respiration; food webs and trophic

levels; ecological pyramids C. Ecosystem Diversity Biodiversity; natural selection; evolution; ecosystem services D. Natural Ecosystem Change Climate shifts; species movement; ecological succession

E. Natural Biogeochemical Cycles Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Conservation of Matter A. Ecosystem Structure Ecosystem Properties Define & list examples Abiotic factors

Biotic factors A. Ecosystem Structure Difference between biological populations and communities What are ecological niches?

A. Ecosystem Structure Population Distribution Clumped Uniform Random

Population Density A. Ecosystem Structure Species Interactions describe & provide an example Commensalism Ammensalism

Mutualism Parasitism A. Ecosystem Structure Species Interactions describe & provide an example Predation/Herbivory

Competition Saprotrophism Trophic Cascade A. Ecosystem Structure What are keystone species? List examples/why?

What are foundation species? List examples/why? What are edge effects? A. Ecosystem Structure What are factors that determine different Biomes?

Reading a Climatograph A. Ecosystem Structure Aquatic Biomes Lentic vs Lotic Zones of Freshwater/Lakes

Zones of Saltwater/Marine A. Ecosystem Structure Aquatic Biomes Wetlands Coral Reefs

Lakes Rivers & Stream A. Ecosystem Structure Terrestrial Biomes Major Properties Savanna Taiga

Temperate Deciduous Forests Temperate/Tropical Forests A. Ecosystem Structure Terrestrial Biomes Major Properties Chaparral Coniferous Forest Tundra

Desert A. Ecosystem Structure Terrestrial Biomes Major Threats Savanna Taiga Temperate Deciduous Forests

Temperate/Tropical Forests A. Ecosystem Structure Terrestrial Biomes Major Threats Chaparral Coniferous Forest Tundra

Desert SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Feedback Loops- explain and give an example Positive (enhance flow) Negative (inhibit flow)

B. Energy Flow What is the initial source(s) of all energy? Relationship between Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration (include equations)

B. Energy Flow Ecological Pyramids/Trophic Levels (label for each) 10% Rule C. Ecosystem Diversity What is Biomass?

What is Productivity? How is it measured? C. Ecosystem Diversity What is Biodiversity?

How is it measured? C. Ecosystem Diversity Relationship between Evolution & Natural Selection (provide an example) What is extinction?

What makes species vulnerable to extinction? C. Ecosystem Diversity What services do ecosystems provide? D. Natural Ecosystem Change How can climate shifts impact ecosystems?

Factors that influence species movement. D. Natural Ecosystem Change Ecological Succession Primary Succession: Secondary Succession:

D. Natural Ecosystem Change Characteristics of succession within plant communities structure diversity net primary productivity nutrient cycling by decomposers

photosynthesis efficiency E. Biogeochemical Cycle Explain the statement: Energy Flows, Matter Cycles What is a reservoir?

E. Biogeochemical Cycle Explain the role of each in the human body Water Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur

E. Biogeochemical Cycle: WATER Include Precipitation, Condensation, Evaporation, Transpiration, Infiltration, Percolation, Runoff, Surface Water, Groundwater Human impact on the water cycle withdrawing from lakes, aquifers, and rivers,

clearing land for agriculture and urbanization destruction of wetlands, pollution of water resources, sewage runoff, building of industry E. Biogeochemical Cycle: WATER E. Biogeochemical Cycle: CARBON

Include Release of carbon back into the atmosphere Carbon sink Trapping carbon Releasing carbon Human impact on the carbon cycle E. Biogeochemical Cycle: CARBON

E. Biogeochemical Cycle: NITROGEN Include**FNAAD ANPAN** Nitrogen Fixation Nitrification Assimilation Ammonification

Denitrification Impacts of excess nitrogen in water and in the air Human impact on the nitrogen cycle E. Biogeochemical Cycle: NITROGEN PROCESS F

N A A D A N

P A N PRODUCT(S) E. Biogeochemical Cycle: NITROGEN

E. Biogeochemical Cycle: PHOSPHOROUS How does the absence/presence affect productivity in an ecosystem? ONLY cycle WITHOUT a GAS phase Human impact on the phosphorous cycle

E. Biogeochemical Cycle: PHOSPHOROUS E. Biogeochemical Cycle: SULFUR Include- Sulfur, Sulfates, & Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur release/trapping Human impacts on the sulfur cycle

E. Biogeochemical Cycle: SULFUR III. Population A. Population Biology Concepts Population ecology; carrying capacity; reproductive strategies; survivorship

B. Human Population 1. Human population dynamics Historical population sizes; distribution; fertility rates; growth rates and doubling times; demographic transition; age-structure diagrams 2. Population size Strategies for sustainability; case studies; national policies 3. Impacts of population growth

Hunger; disease; economic effects; resource use; habitat destruction A. Population Biology Concepts J curve vs.

S curve Boom/Bust Cycles- Overshoot vs. Dieback Factors that limit population growth Abiotic

Biotic A. Population Biology Concepts What is carrying capacity (K) and what factors affect it? A. POPULATION GROWTH

Reproductive strategies K- adapted r-adapted A. POPULATION GROWTH Survivorship Curves-

A. POPULATION GROWTH Factors regulate population growth Measures of Birth Rate: Natality Fecundity Fertility

Immigration Emigration Measures Longevity: Mortality Survivorship A. POPULATION GROWTH

Factors regulate population growth Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Density Dependent Factors Density Independent Factors

A. POPULATION GROWTH The Theory of Island Biogeography B. HUMAN POPULATION Historical Population Growth Human Demography

Total population= ____________________________ US Population = ____________________________ B. HUMAN POPULATION DEVEOPLED DEVELOPING

B. HUMAN POPULATION URBAN RURAL B. HUMAN POPULATION

Population Momentum Replacement Fertility Zero Population Growth B. HUMAN POPULATION Doubling Times

Calculate Growth Rate (r) provide equation Crude Birth/Death Rate (per thousand) B. HUMAN POPULATION Demographic Transition- Graph & explain 4 stages (pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, post-indust.)

B. HUMAN POPULATION Draw Age Structure Diagrams- 3 types B. HUMAN POPULATION Population size Strategies for Sustainability

Case studies/national policies China India B. HUMAN POPULATION Impacts of population growth

Hunger/disease Economic effects Resource use/habitat destruction IV. Land and Water Use

A. Agriculture 1. Feeding a growing population Human nutritional requirements; types of agriculture; Green Revolution; genetic engineering and crop production; deforestation; irrigation; sustainable agriculture 2. Controlling pests Types of pesticides; costs and benefits of pesticide use; integrated

pest management; relevant laws B. Forestry Tree plantations; old growth forests; forest fires; forest management; national forests C. Rangelands Overgrazing; deforestation; desertification; rangeland management; federal rangelands

IV. Land and Water Use D. Other Land Use 1. Urban land development Planned development; suburban sprawl; urbanization 2. Transportation infrastructure Federal highway system; canals and channels; roadless areas; ecosystem impacts

3. Public and federal lands Management; wilderness areas; national parks; wildlife refuges; forests; wetlands 4. Land conservation options Preservation; remediation; mitigation; restoration 5. Sustainable land-use strategies E. Mining

Mineral formation; extraction; global reserves; relevant laws and treaties F. Fishing Fishing techniques; overfishing; aquaculture; relevant laws and treaties G. Global Economics Globalization; World Bank; Tragedy of the Commons; relevant laws & treaties A. Food & Agriculture

Human Nutritional Requirements Undernutrition vs Malnutrition vs Overnutrition Kwashiorkor & Marasmus A. Food & Agriculture

Types of agriculture Alley cropping Crop rotation Intercropping Low-till/No-till Monoculture Polyculture Subsistence agriculture

A. Food & Agriculture First Green Revolution Second Green Revolution A. Food & Agriculture Genetic engineering (GMOs) & Crop production

Pros vs Cons A. Food & Agriculture Fertilizers Organic vs. inorganic fertilizers Common forms Advantages Disadvantages

Eutrophication A. Food & Agriculture Deforestation Irrigation

Methods of sustainable agriculture A. Pest Control Pests & Types of Pesticides A. Pest Control Pesticide Use

PROS/BENEFITS CONS/COSTS A. Pest Control Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Relevant laws Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Control Act (FIFRA) Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) B. FORESTRY/LAND USE Tree plantations- pros vs cons

Old growth forests- characteristics Forest fires- crown vs. ground vs surface fires, ecological importance and methods to control fires B. FORESTRY/LAND USE

Methods of Tree Harvesting & Pros/Cons Clear-Cutting High Grading Strip Cutting

Tree Plantation C. Rangelands What are Rangelands? Major Impacts Consequences & Mitigations Overgrazing

Desertification D. Other Land Use Urban land development Planned development; suburban sprawl; urbanization, smart growth

D. Other Land Use Urbanization PROS/BENEFITS CONS/COSTS D. Other Land Use

Transportation infrastructure Federal highway system; canals and channels; roadless areas; ecosystem impacts D. Other Land Use Public and federal lands Management; wilderness areas; national parks;

wildlife refuges; forests; wetlands D. Other Land Use Land conservation options Preservation Remediation Mitigation

Restoration E. Mining Methods of Extraction Surface Mining Underground Mining

In situ Leaching E. Mining Acid Mine Draining / Acid Rock Drainage E. Mining

Location & Supply (%) Global reserves Oil reserves Coal reserves Natural gas reserves Global mineral reserves Relevant laws and treaties

F. Fishing Fishing techniquesBottom Trawling Drift Net Long Line Purse Seine Bycatch

F. Fishing Overfishing- remediation techniques Aquaculture- pros vs. cons Relevant laws and treaties

G. Global Economics SignificanceGlobalization World Bank International Monetary Fund World Trade Organization G. Global Economics

Tragedy of the Commons summary & examples V. Energy Resources & Consumption A. Energy Concepts Energy forms; power; units; conversions; Laws of Thermodynamics B. Energy Consumption

1. History Industrial Revolution; exponential growth; energy crisis) 2. Present global energy use 3. Future energy needs C. Fossil Fuel Resources and Use Formation of coal, oil, and natural gas; extraction/purification methods; world reserves and global demand; synfuels;

environmental advantages/disadvantages of sources) V. Energy Resources & Consumption D. Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission process; nuclear fuel; electricity production; nuclear reactor types; environmental advantages/disadvantages; safety issues; radiation and human health; radioactive wastes; nuclear fusion

E. Hydroelectric Power Dams; flood control; salmon; silting; other impacts F. Energy Conservation Energy efficiency; CAFE standards; hybrid electric vehicles; mass transit G. Renewable Energy Solar energy; solar electricity; hydrogen fuel cells; biomass; wind

energy; small-scale hydroelectric; ocean waves and tidal energy; geothermal; environmental advantages/disadvantages A. ENERGY CONCEPTS Laws of Thermodynamics 1st Law:

2nd Law: A. ENERGY CONCEPTS Potential vs. Kinetic Energy Give an example of each energy form: Mechanical Thermal Chemical Electrical Nuclear Electromagnetic -

A. ENERGY CONCEPTS Units of Energy/Conversions Power BTU Horsepower Watt Calorie

B. ENERGY CONSUMPTION History Industrial Revolution Exponential growth Energy crisis

B. ENERGY CONSUMPTION Present U.S. & global energy use Future energy needs C. Fossil Fuel Resources & Use: COAL Formation of Coal

Extraction methods Environmental advantages/disadvantages World reserves and global demand

C. Fossil Fuel Resources & Use: COAL Methods to Reduce Pollutants from Coal Beneficiation Filters Scrubbers Electrostatic Precipitators

C. Fossil Fuel Resources & Use: OIL Formation of Oil Extraction methods Environmental advantages/disadvantages

World reserves and global demand C. Fossil Fuel Resources & Use: Natural Gas Formation of Natural Gas Extraction methods

Environmental advantages/disadvantages World reserves and global demand D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Fission process

Fertile vs Fissile Nuclear Fuel U-235,U-238, Pu-239 D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Uranium Fuel Cycle 1. Mining

2. Milling 3. Conversion 4. Enrichment 5. Fuel Fabrication 6. Nuclear Reactor 7. Spent Fuel Reprocessing

D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Electricity production process D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Environmental advantages/disadvantages Safety issues

* Other Nonrenewable Energy Sources Methane Hydrates Oil Shale Oil Sands / Tar Sands

Synfuels E. HYDROELECTRIC POWER Energy Generation Process Advantages/Disadvantages to Dams

E. HYDROELECTRIC POWER Flood Control Methods Channelization Dams Levees or Floodwalls

F. ENERGY CONSERVATION List 5 conservation methods1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

F. ENERGY CONSERVATION Smart Grids CAF Standards Environmental Advantages of Mass Transit

G. RENEWABLE ENERGY Describe & Provide Advantages/Disadvantages Passive Solar Active Solar

Photovoltaic Cells G. RENEWABLE ENERGY Describe & Provide Advantages/Disadvantages Biogas (Ethanol & Biodiesel) Biomass

Biofuel G. RENEWABLE ENERGY Describe & Provide Advantages/Disadvantages Geothermal

Wind G. RENEWABLE ENERGY Describe & Provide Advantages/Disadvantages Ocean Waves & Tidal Energy Small-Scale Hydroelectric

G. RENEWABLE ENERGY Describe & Provide Advantages/Disadvantages Passive Solar Active Solar Photovoltaic Cells

VI. Pollution A. Pollution Types 1. Air pollution Sources primary and secondary; major air pollutants; measurement units; smog; acid deposition causes and effects; heat islands and temperature inversions; indoor air pollution;

remediation and reduction strategies; Clean Air Act and other relevant laws 2. Noise pollution Sources; effects; control measures) 3. Water pollution Types; sources, causes, and effects; cultural eutrophication; groundwater pollution; maintaining water quality; water

purification; sewage treatment/septic systems; Clean Water Act and other relevant laws VI. Pollution 4. Solid waste Types; disposal; reduction B. Impacts on the Environment and Human Health

1. Hazards to human health Environmental risk analysis; acute and chronic effects; doseresponse relationships; air pollutants; smoking & other risks 2. Hazardous chemicals in the environment Types of hazardous waste; treatment/disposal of hazardous waste; cleanup of contaminated sites; biomagnification; relevant laws C. Economic Impacts

Cost-benefit analysis; externalities; marginal costs; sustainability A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Primary Sources - Cause & Effects CO CO2 SO2

NO NO2 A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Primary Sources - Cause & Effects VOCs

PMX (PM10) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg) A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Secondary Sources - Cause & Effects

SO3 H2SO4 HNO3 PANs Tropospheric O3 A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Industrial vs Photochemical Smog

Formation & Health Effects- A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Indoor air pollution: sources of contaminants Remediation and reduction strategies for indoor/outdoor air pollution

A. POLLUTION TYPES: AIR Catalytic Converters Thermal Inversion Clean Air Act and other relevant laws

A. POLLUTION TYPES: NOISE Sources & Effects A. POLLUTION TYPES: WATER Sources & Effects

A. POLLUTION TYPES: WATER Cultural Eutrophication Groundwater Pollution Urban Runoff

A. POLLUTION TYPES: WATER Water quality and purification processes Clean Water Act and other relevant laws- A. POLLUTION TYPES: WATER Sewage treatment/septic systems Primary treatment

Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment A. POLLUTION TYPES: WATER Water Quality Tests

Test Temperature pH Hardness Dissolved Oxygen Biological Oxygen

Demand Fecal Coliform Turbidity Nitrate, Nitrite, & Phosphates Impact

A. POLLUTION TYPES: SOLID WASTE Types & Disposal Organic Radioactive Soiled Toxic Recyclable

Reduction A. POLLUTION TYPES: SOLID WASTE Reduction Strategies - Pros vs Cons Composting Remanufacturing

Detoxifying Exporting Anaerobic Digestion A. POLLUTION TYPES: SOLID WASTE Reduction Strategies - Pros vs Cons Land-disposal- (sanitary landfills & open dumping)

Ocean dumping Recycling& Reuse Incineration A. POLLUTION TYPES: SOLID WASTE Relevant Laws : RCRA

CERCLA B. IMPACTS ON ENVIROMENT & HUMAN HEALTH Environmental Risk Analysis Acute vs. Chronic Effects

Dose-response relationshipsTD-50 vs LD-50 B. IMPACTS ON ENVIROMENT & HUMAN HEALTH Hazardous chemicals in the environment Corrosive Ignitable

Toxic Radioactive Mutagen Carcinogen Teratogen B. IMPACTS ON ENVIROMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

Brownfield Cleanup of contaminated sites Bioremediation Phytoremediation Incineration Storage Surface Impoundments & Deep Well Injection B. IMPACTS ON ENVIROMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

Persistent Organic Pollutants Bioaccumulation vs. Biomagnification B. IMPACTS ON ENVIROMENT & HUMAN HEALTH Cost-benefit Analysis Externalities: Positive (external benefits) and Negative (external costs)

Marginal Costs Sustainability: common threads, EPA VII. Global Change A. Stratospheric Ozone Formation of stratospheric ozone; ultraviolet radiation;

causes of ozone depletion; effects of ozone depletion; strategies for reducing ozone depletion; relevant laws and treaties B. Global Warming Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect; impacts and consequences of global warming; reducing climate change; relevant laws and treaties) C. Loss of Biodiversity

1. Habitat loss; overuse; pollution; introduced species; endangered and extinct species 2. Maintenance through conservation 3. Relevant laws and treaties A. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Formation of stratospheric ozone

Ultraviolet radiation UVA UVB UVC A. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Cause & Effects of Ozone Depletion

Include Equations A. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Strategies for Reducing Ozone Depletion Relevant laws and treaties:

Montreal Protocol B. GLOBAL WARMING What is the Greenhouse Effect? Identify & Describe the Sources of the Major GHGs

B. GLOBAL WARMING List Impacts & Consequences of Global Warming B. GLOBAL WARMING Mitigating Factors for Climate Change Relevant laws and treaties

BENEFITS TO BIODIVERSITY C. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Identify the factor and describe how it is harming biodiversity 1. H

2. I 3. P 4. P 5. C 6. O C. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY

Endemic Species Threatened Species Endangered Species Characteristics that have contributed to endangerment or extinction C. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY What is a biodiversity hotspot?

Identify & Describe the Major Methods to Maintain Biodiversity C. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Introduced Species/Invasive Species: definition, types, consequences, examples

C. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Relevant Laws and Treaties: CITES Endangered Species Act

ADDITIONAL:

Experimental Design Identify Question Hypothesis (IfThen statement) Procedures (list) Data/results

Analysis Conclusion

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