AP Biology Chapter 45 - Warren County Public Schools

AP Biology Chapter 45 - Warren County Public Schools

AP Biology Endocrine Systems Signal Transduction Pathway Kinases turn on processes Phosphotases turn off processes Basic Hormone Pattern Example Pathway Low blood glucose Stimulus Receptor protein Endocrine

cell Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Blood vessel Target effectors Response Liver Glycogen breakdown, glucose release into blood Simple endocrine pathway

Remember the hands on cell membranes? (In GREEN) LE 45-7 Hypothalamus Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Axon Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary HORMONE TARGET

ADH Kidney tubules Oxytocin Mammary glands, uterine muscles Cytokines IL 1 Macrophage to Helper T IL2 Helper T to B or Cytotoxic T SECRETORY CELL Polar versus Non-polar Hormone Signal Reception SECRETORY

CELL Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD Signal receptor TARGET CELL TARGET CELL Signal transduction

pathway OR Signal receptor Cytoplasmic response DNA Signal transduction and response mRNA DNA NUCLEUS Nuclear response NUCLEUS

Receptor in plasma membrane Synthesis of specific proteins Receptor in cell nucleus Hypothalamus Examples of Negative Feedback Loops TRH Anterior pituitary TSH Thyroid T3

T4 Positive Feedback Loop Tropic Hormones of the PosteriorPituitary Hypothalamus Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Axon Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary HORMONE

TARGET ADH Kidney tubules Oxytocin Mammary glands, uterine muscles Tropic Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Tropic Effects Only FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone LH, luteinizing hormone TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone Neurosecretory cells

of the hypothalamus Nontropic Effects Only Prolactin MSH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone Endorphin Portal vessels Nontropic and Tropic Effects Growth hormone Hypothalamic releasing hormones (red dots) Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary Pituitary hormones (blue dots)

HORMONE FSH and LH TSH ACTH Prolactin MSH Endorphin TARGET Testes or ovaries Thyroid Adrenal

cortex Mammary glands Melanocytes Pain receptors in the brain Growth hormone Liver Bones

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