Animal Farm Notes

Animal Farm Notes ~by George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair was an Englishman born in India June 25,1903. Died: January 21, 1950 at age 47 of tuberculosis eulogized as a saint as the conscience of his generation About the

Author 1933 began writing under the pen name: George Orwell George-Patron Saint of England Orwell-River in Suffolk Orwell was educated at Eton, a prestigious boarding school in England. King's Scholar from 1917 to 1921 joined the British Imperial Police in Burma, but resigned in

1928 because he started to hate imperialism ( first novel Burmese Days reflects this feeling) More once back in England he dedicated himself to writing full time About the (novels, documentaries, essays, and news articles) Author 1933 first novel published Down and Out in London 1944 finished Animal Farm an anti-Stalinist allegory 1984 was written in 1948 (originally titled The Last Man in Europe) some claim it depicts Nazi Germany rule 1936 and 1945 married to Eileen O'Shaughnessy, adopted a son, Richard Horatio Blair (b. May of 1944). wife died 1945 during an operation

1937 he volunteered to fight with the socialists in the Spanish Civil War and 3 incidents helped inspire A.F. comradeship and respect, treating each other as equals, successful socialism in action his comrades were shot by fellow comrades no one believed his story lived in poverty for several years, sometimes homeless work as a schoolteacher until ill health forced him to give this up to work part-time as an assistant in a secondhand bookshop in Hampstead Orwells Political Views Hated 2 things: inequality and political lying His hatred for inequality stemmed from his childhood in which his father spent almost of his

pension to put Blair through higher-class boarding schools, though the family could hardly afford it. He believed that what the Soviets called Socialism was a joke; favoring democratic socialism instead, which would eliminate class privileges. strongly opposed Stalin and Hitler -- very outspoken during WWII Historical Context: The Russian Revolution (1917-1921) 1917: Bolshevik Revolution changed Russia to the USSR started for the proletariat (working class) against the bourgeoisie (the owners) food shortage lead to riots

Key Players: Czar Nicholas II, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky Key Players Czar Nicholas II Nobility in power at that time; concerned with lavish life and not the peasantry, who were suffering severally Karl Marx hated capitalism and wanted equality for all (socialism) The Communist Manifesto: encouraged proletariat to

overtake bourgeoisie and form a socialistic government where everyone is equal Heavy influence in the formation of the Russian Revolution Key Players cont. (hidden agenda for own power: Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin) Vladimir Lenin (died 1924) followed Marx idea and developed it into the Communist Party (lead by the working class) first head of the U.S.S.R. lead the radical Bolshevik Revolution: a bloody 4 year Civil War

Revolutionists Red Army (Trotsky) vs. the Whites (loyal to Czar or against Communism) After Lenins death there was a power struggle between Trotsky and Stalin Leon Trotsky led Red army won support for his eloquent speeches, organizational energy, and brilliant ideas on industrialization exiled, deported, and later assassinated in Mexico by Stalins command denounced as a traitor by Stalin Joseph Stalin Succeeded Lenin as the leader of the Soviet Union

Won support of important members of the Bolshevik Party a great manipulator Great Terror/Great Purge: 1930s orders a series of purges that resulted in the death of anyone who opposed Stalins authority; many innocent died later made a treaty with Hitler, short lived as during WWII Germany invaded the U.S.S.R. this lead to an alliance with Great Britain By end of WWI, millions of Soviet soldiers and citizens were dead and the press still glorified Stalin Why did Orwell write AF? many found it hard to give up loyalty to Stalin through satire, Orwell hoped to show the true Russia

Animal Farm helped much of the Western world see the dangers of communism Important Terms Totalitarianism form of govnt in which political authority exercises absolute control over all aspects of life individual is subordinate to the state opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed KGB Soviet secret police Used as informants and enforcers Important Terms cont. Political Satire

humor, parody, and irony to criticize and ridicule a subject Used to make fun of something Underlying message very critical Fable a short, simple story, usually with animals as characters to teach moral truth moral always applies to humans but uses animals in disguise Moral The lesson/principle contained in or taught be a fable, a story, or an event Allegory A story that relates to historical events with characters, such as animals (fable); a symbolic representation

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