ANDREW JACKSON One of Americas most loved and hated Presidents ELECTION OF 1828 JQA who can write Andy J who can fight ELECTION OF 1828
Adams seeks reelection Elitist, unpopular, not right for the common people Jacksonians have new campaign method: MUDSLINGING Smearing the Presidents name, retaliating with negativity Jackson: Adams uses public funds for personal luxuries! Adams: Jacksons wife committed adultery! 3x number of voters participated compared to 1824
Jackson wins easily Master political campaign organizer Carries all western states; war hero and a man of the western frontier OLD HICKORY, A MAN OF THE PEOPLE Our first self-made president Famous self-trained general
Symbol of the working class No college education Against the rich Frugal Jeffersonian; limited federal power, states rights POLITICS OF THE COMMON MAN Universal Male Suffrage
No more property/religious qualifications Rise of 3rd parties New political concerns More Elected Offices Party Nominating Conventions and Popular Campaigning
Popular Election of President Role of the President Voters choose a states slate of presidential electors Two Party System Whigs & Democrats solidify Campaign on a large scale basis
Limited (sorta) Spoils System/Rotation of Offices More Opportunity Giving out government jobs in return for party loyalty
THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS Supported states rights but not disunion Jackson continues policy of protective tariffs by supporting the 1828 Tariff of Abominations South Carolina (and South) is
unhappy, declares tariff unconstitutional John C. Calhoun proposes nullification JOHN C. CALHOUN: AN INTRODUCTION Originally a Presidential candidate; settled for Jacksons VP
Agreed with 1828 Tariff; changed opinion because it hurt the agrarian south Advocated for nullification instead of secession Joined with Clay later on with the Compromise Tariff Left VP position after Jacksons first
term NULLIFICATION CRISIS 1832: SC holds special convention to nullify Tariff of 1828 and 1832 Jackson: Force Bill Military action is not taken; Congress negotiates and
lowers tariff; SC backs down Impact: Strong defense of federal authority Foreshadowing: anti-slavery alarm a growing concern JACKSON VS. THE NATIONAL BANK
Jackson is weary of the national bank Hard money v. soft money; Constitutionality; Power National Bank (1816) v. State Banks (Panic 1819) Congress proposes renewing the bank for 20 years Clay-Webster political ploy Bill passes but Jackson vetoes the bill Jackson destroys the bank (though its charter had not expired) and invests the money in state banks
Called Pet Banks because Jackson rewarded his allies Split outcome: good and bad for nation ANDREW JACKSONS REAL ABOMINATION Sympathized with land-hungry Americans Most humane solution: compel all American Indians to resettle west of the Mississippi Pushed Congress to approve the Indian Removal Act,
funding the governments forced relocation of American Indians 1836: Bureau of Indian Affairs created JACKSONS SPEECH TO CONGRESS It will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites; free them from the power of the States; enable them to pursue happiness in their own way
and under their own rude institutions; will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community. INDIANS FIGHT BACK
The Cherokee, one of the five civilized tribes, fought back in the American way sues the government Precedents set by Chief Justice John Marshall Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831: Tribal Sovereignty Worcester v. Georgia 1832: GA laws had no force in Cherokee Territory GA ignores rulingFederal Court v. State Laws
ANDREW JACKSONS RESPONSE TO JOHN MARSHALL JOHN MARSHALL HAS MADE HIS DECISION, NOW LET HIM ENFORCE IT. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? SIGNIFICANCE? JACKSON AND AMERICAN INDIANS
Essentially, Jackson ignores the Supreme Court and ignores the checks and balances that are supposed to limit his power Extreme racism at the time; many supported Jackson and he was never held accountable VP, then President Martin Van Buren enacts the Trail of Tears because of the Indian Removal Act 15,000 Cherokees removed; 4,000+ deaths
READ: PRIMARY SOURCES OF INDIAN REMOVAL REVIEW: JACKSON 1. Give 3 examples of how politics changed to support the common man. 2. What sections of the country supported Jackson? Why? 3. Give an example of how Jackson supported the federal government. 4. Give an example of how Jackson supported the state government.
5. Why might the Election of 1828 be considered a revolution? 6. How did Jackson change the role of the president? Use the following events to support your answer. 1. Tariff of Abominations/Nullification Crisis 2. Bank War 3. Indian Removal/Worcester v. GA
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