Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Brain

Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Brain

Midbrain (mesencephalon) Cerebellum Subconscious skeletal muscle mvmt

Equilibrium and balance Functions Evaluate how cerebrum initiated movements are being executed

Coordinates skeletal muscle contractions Posture & balance Cognition and language processing

See table 14.2 Diencephalon Surrounds third ventricle

Internal medullary lamina = Y-shaped (white matter) Divides lobes of gray matter

Thalamu s Composed of a dozen nuclei REGULATES: ANS activities

Production and release of hormones (oxytocin & ADH) Emotional and behavioral patterns (with limbic system)

Feeding center, satiety center, thirst center Body temperature Circadian rhythms Hypothalamus

Epithalamus Cerebrum Read, write, memory, imagine, emotions, math,

music etc. Gray matter / white matter Longitudinal fissure Corpus callosum 5 lobes

Cerebrum The Seat of Intelligence Brain Lobes Folded deep within lateral sulcus

Believed to play a role in emotion, consciousness and regulating homeostasis Corpus Callosum

Callosal commissure Tough body Broad band of nerve fibers Hemispheric communication

Largest white matter area Cerebrum Functional Areas Sensory, Motor, Association Cerebral Cortex

Brain Folds of Cerebral Cortex Gyri convolutions Sulci shallow grooves Fissures deeper grooves Longitudinal fissure (most prominent) separates the cerebral

hemispheres. Falx cerebri in the longitudinal fissure Cerebral White Matter Connections between parts of brain and to rest of NS Myelinated axons 3 directions

Cerebral White Matter 3 types of fibers: Association gyri in same hemisphere Commissural (3 groups) corresponding gyri between hemispheres Projection Cerebral White Matter Commissural Fibers

a) Corpus Callosum largest b) Anterior Commissure c) Posterior Commissure Projection fibers: Internal Capsule thick band of white matter containing ascending and

descending tracts Runs through basal nuclei Basal Ganglia or Basal Nuclei NOTE no longer called ganglia b/c that is a group of cell bodies in the PNS.

3 large nuclei deep within white matter 1. Globus pallidus 2. Putamen 3. Caudate nucleus Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Globus pallidus + putamen = lentiform nucleus Lentiform nucleus + caudate nucleus = corpus striatum

FUNCTIONS: Initiate and terminate body movements Suppress

unwanted movements Regulate muscle tone Sensory, limbic, cognitive and

linguistic functions Limbic System Emotional Life, Memory, Motivation, Epinephrine (adrenaline) CURRENT structures include:

Hippocampus spatial memory and learning Amygdala Cognitive, emotional and social processes Mammillary bodies of hypothalamus limbic circuits Olfactory bulbs Fornix Stria terminalis Stria medullaris Medial forebrain bundle

Linked by bundles of Mammillothalamis tract interconnected myelinated axons flow Limbic System

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