An Empire in Transition

An Empire in Transition

An Empire in Transition Colonial Governments Parliament loosely concerned with colonies after Glorious Revolution Most colonial governors were temporary Local leaders had more permanent authority Albany Plan: Ben Franklin first proposes idea of colonial assembly Response to frontier problems with French and Iroquois Assembly to unify American colonial concerns, with consent of Parliament Plan drafted, but not approved by colonies

Every colonist still considered loyal Englishman Louis XIV and France Louis recognized value of trade in America Funded expeditions and colonial expansion Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet Explored Green Bay to junction of Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers Sieur de La Salle Explored to the delta of the Mississippi River Ultimately settled Louisiana - infringed upon English settlements

Conflict in the New World Three most powerful groups English, French, Iroquois Battle for alliance with Iroquois (who played both sides) French more tolerant of native culture English more reliable trade partners Iroquois granted trade concessions to English after series of conflicts in Europe French interpreted as a threat built strategic forts in America Fort Duquesne (Modern Pittsburgh) threatened Virginia and Pennsylvania

French and Indian War Began 1754 Washingtons failed attack on Ft. Duquesne = capture at Ft. Necessity Fighting amongst English and French colonists first year 1755 English General Braddock killed in French ambush near Duquesne = war extends to Europe also. Prime Minister, William Pitt, installed laws to force colonial support for British war efforts offends colonists Provide shelter for British troops, forced military service

Led to riots in New York Pitt relaxed policies to regain colonial support British Victory Seven Years War eventually ended in America after poor harvests left French forts ill-equipped Sieges at Duquesne, Louisburg, and Quebec William III signed Peace of Paris 1763 (against Pitts wishes) Brutality:

French colonists from Nova Scotia relocated throughout English colonies ( Cajun ancestors) Scalp bounties on French allies French attacks on British colonists on frontiers. Aftermath of French and Indian War England received: West Indies, French colonies in India, Canada, and French colonies east of Mississippi Spain received:

New Orleans and Western territories War resulted in extreme debt and resentment toward colonials Colonials gained military experience - passionate distaste for British regulars and policies. More Land = More Problems Rapid settlement of new land caused more conflict with natives Proclamation of 1763: instituted boundary for westward colonial settlements Intended to be temporary source of friction when colonists disregarded it

How should British pay to protect these new claims? Colonists refused to voluntarily pay more taxes parliament imposed first new taxes in years Are new territories new colonies, or part of pre-existing colonies? King George III Obtained the Throne at a young age driven largely by his mother determined to prove ability to rule - more active role in policy Upset both Parliament and Colonies

Rare disease impaired judgment - wont be obvious until later life Appoints George Grenville as Prime Minister Grenville not as sympathetic to colonist and unwilling to compromise like Pitt had. Immediately imposes new system to collect taxes from colonists. Grenville Mutiny Act 1765 force colonists to help maintain an army. Increased size of Customs service Sugar Act 1764 eliminate illegal sugar trade with strictly enforced

duty on sugar drove up price of sugar BUT down price of molasses Currency Act 1764 forbid colonies from printing paper currency and restricted the amount available. Stamp Act 1765 tax on all printed documents: newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses.. Drove up the prices of everyday products Grenvilles Impact Colonial economy struggled after French and Indian War heavy

taxes compounded the issue Laws favor parliament, at expense of colonists Stamp Act in particular Primary dispute representation Colonists wanted direct representation All members of Parliament represent all of England Colonial Response - Too divided Paxton Boys - western Pennsylvania farmers attacked Philadelphia for relief from COLONIAL taxes

wanted help with Indian problems after the war. Regulators in North Carolina: wanted more COLONIAL representation, ended in conflict within the colony. Virginia Resolves proposed paying English taxes indirectly through colonial govts. result of fiery speech in the House of Burgesses by Patrick Henry Stamp Act Congress 1765 met in New York 9 colonies represented officially petitioned the king, proposed many ideas from the Virginia Resolves Stamp Act briefly repealed

Charles Townsend New Parliament leader Follows King George III Colonists celebrate Stamp Act Victory upsets the crown Declaratory Act: gave Parliament complete control of all colonies Quartering Act: officially forced colonists to house British troops New York Assembly dissolved when they refused Groups like Sons of Liberty - officially advocated forceful rejection of laws Tar and Feathered, beat, and intimidated customs officials

Boston Massacre Colonists effectively boycott Townsend Acts Primarily out of coercion by the Sons of Liberty Led to multiple incidents between colonists and troops Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770 Colonists taunted and assaulted troops at Boston Harbor Eventually troops opened fire and killed 5 unarmed colonists. Violation of British Rights

Gaspee Incident - Colonists from Rhode Island stormed a British merchant ship and sank it in the Narragansett Bay Trials took place in Britain not American colonies Tea Act - In order to save the British East India Tea company from bankruptcy, the government passed the Tea Act of 1773 Actually made the tea cheaper but favored a govt owned company Boston Tea Party - Sons of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians and boarded British supply ship and dumped tea into the harbor.

Symbolic gesture British punished Boston as a whole when citizens refused to pay for damages The Intolerable Acts Officially called the Coercive Acts by Parliament aimed at coercing Massachusetts colonists into subordination Closed Boston Harbor Reduced colonial government Permitted Royal officials to be tried in England when accused of a crime

Required quartering of troops Violated English Bill of Rights First Continental Congress 55 delegates from 12 colonies (except Georgia) met in Philadelphia Decisions Made:

Sent a statement of respectful grievances to London Approved preparations for British response, prepare for a military in Boston Formed Constitutional Association - boycott British goods until acts repealed Agreed to meet again in the Spring Shot Heard Round the World battles of Lexington and Concord happened weeks before the re-convened in Spring

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