Adolescent ADHD: Self, Peers and Parents

Adolescent ADHD: Self, Peers and Parents

+ Adolescent ADHD: Self, Peers and Parents Judy Wiener, PhD Professor, Human Development & Applied Psychology + Outline The Team Purpose Self of our research Perceptions Peer Relationships

Parenting Mindfulness Future Web Intervention Research Site Introduction Academy Refreshments Break-out Think from YMCA Groups

Tank +The Team + Purpose of our research To improve the quality of life of adolescents with ADHD and their families by: Understanding how teens with ADHD feel about themselves Learning about the nature of the teens peer relations Bullying

Friendship Examining the impact of having a teen with ADHD on parents Parenting stress Parent-teen conflict Investigating whether mindfulness cognitive behavioural therapy interventions help This research was supported by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada + Self Perceptions, Positive Illusions and Stigma

Angela Varma + Self-Perceptions ACADEMIC COMPETENCE JOB COMPETENCE BEHAVIOURAL CONDUCT No differences in self-esteem + Positive Illusions for ADHD Symptoms (PIB) ALEX: Fidgeting & Squirming +

Positive Illusory Bias Parents vs Adolescents PIB Discrepancy Score 16 ADHD 12 Control 8 4 0 -4 D SM IA D

SM I H D SM O D D ar e L n o Pr b ro

P c So b Sig Eta IA *** .189 HI *** .180 OD

** .133 LP *** .157 SP * .069 + PIB Teachers vs Adolescents PIB Discrepancy Score 8 ADHD

Control 4 0 -4 SM D IA SM D I H SM D D D O

ro P rn a Le b + Stigma of ADHD and Problem Behaviours Total Stigmatization 18 ADHD Control 14 10 6

Grp 2 -2 9- 12 s ar e y 13 15 s ar e y -1

16 8 s ar e y Sig Eta *** .094 + Peer Relations Victoria Timmermani

+ What is Bullying? Bullying is (Olweus, 1995) negative actions repeatedly and over time imbalance of power intended to cause harm Various Verbal forms Physical Cyber-Bullying Relational

Impact of Bullying How does it make you feel when kids bully you? Alan Lonely. Makes me feel embarrassed, sad, angry Interviewer What do you do? Alan I just walk away. Interviewer What do you do with all that anger & sadness? Alan I let it out when I get home or I just deny. I go upstairs to my room, close the door, & start screaming & shouting at the top of my lungs. Interviewer Does that help? Alan NO Interviewer Shea & Wiener, 2003 + Importance of Peer Victimization Child anxiety & depression Victim

Adult Victimization Bully Adult spousal & Child abuse, violent crime Craig, 2008 + TYPES OF BULLYING Physical Pushing, hitting Verbal Bullying

Bullying Name-calling (weird, idiot, loser, ugly) Teasing regarding clothing References to sexual orientation (Ew, youre so faggy) Relational Bullying Most hurtful Exclusion, shunning, dirty looks Covert and hidden Cyber Bullying Power Imbalance

Chronic + Frequent Categorization ADHD 15.00% 2.50% Comparison 4.17% Victim Bully 7.50% Bully/Victim 75.00% 95.83%

No Involvement frequent bullying/victimization was defined as once a week or more ADHD and Bullying: Adolescence + ADHD Victim status 57.5 0% ADHD 52.5 47.5 0% 0% 42.5 0% Bully Status Comparison

Victim Status 20.8 3% 79.1 7% Victim Comparison Bully Status 20.8 3% 79.1 7% Bully NonBully (Timmermanis & Wiener, 2011) + PREDICTORS OF VICTIMIZATION ADHD

Parent rated peer problems VICTIM Self-Perception of social support Timmermanis & Wiener, 2011 + PARENT ADOLESCENT CONFLICT Clarisa Markel + Number of Conflicts out of 45 16 14 12 10 ADHD Comparison

8 6 4 2 0 Teen Mother Father + Specific Areas of Conflict Parent Report Making too much noise Allowance Lying Getting up in the morning Getting to school on time Getting low grades in

school Getting in trouble at school Coming home on time Talking back to parents Teen Report Coming home on time How money is spent + Parenting Stress Daniella Biondic + WHAT IS PARENTING STRESS? Parenting stress is a dynamic process that occurs when parents perceptions of the demands of parenting outweighs their perceptions of the resources for meeting those demands. (Deater Deckard, 2004)

+ Domains of Parenting Stress Adolescent Domain Parent Domain ParentAdolescent Relationship Moodiness Challenging Behaviour Role Restrictions Relationship with Partner + ADHD Mother vs. Control Comparing parenting stress levels 250 200

150 Partial Eta Control ADHD 100 50 0 Total Stress Adolescent Parent Adolescent-Parent Relationship TS .35 *** AD

.61*** PD .25** APRD .11* +ADHD Father vs. Control Comparing parenting stress levels 250 200 Partial Eta 150 Control ADHD TS

.30 ** AD .52*** PD .04 APRD .12* 100 50 0 + Predictors of Maternal Stress Total Stress

32.6% 45.6% 21.8% ADHD Status Externalizing Behaviour & Maternal Inattention Unknown + Predictors Paternal Stress Total Stress 30.5 % 65.3% 4.2% ADHD Status Externalizing Behaviour Unknown +

Mindfulness Intervention Jill Haydicky & Carly Shecter Collaborating with Joe Ducharme Paul Badali Karen Milligan + What is Mindfulness? The awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally to things as they are. -Williams, Teasdale, Segal & Kabat-Zinn (2007) Two components

Self-regulation of attention Accepting attitude toward experience + Mindfulness Martial Arts - Integra 20-week manualized program for adolescents with Learning Disabilities (LD) Designed to increase self-awareness self-control adaptability social skills Combines elements of mindfulness, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and mixed martial arts.

+ Findings from Mindfulnes Martial Arts Compared to Wait List control group, intervention youth improved on: Teens Parent-rated externalizing behaviour (e.g., aggression, defiance) Teens with LD + Hyperactive/Impulsive Symptoms: Parent-rated social problems & self-monitoring Teens with LD + ADHD:

with LD + Anxiety: Self report of anxiety Haydicky, Wiener, Badali, Milligan, & Ducharme (2012). + Adapted AMBAT Mindfulness Program for youth with ADHD and their Parents Joint parent-adolescent 8 week mindfulness training program Previous research by Bogels shows the program helps teens with ADHD with attention Adapted by Haydicky & Shecter for Canadian context Designed

to Improve attention and focus Lower anxiety and stress Reduce parenting stress and parent-adolescent conflict Enhance positive interactions in families with an adolescent with ADHD + Preliminary Findings Teens demonstrated reductions in Attention problems Peer relations Conduct problems

Anxiety Depression Parents reported Lower parenting stress Higher levels of mindful awareness Improved family functioning +Current & Future Research

5 Ws of bullying Relationship of social perspective taking and empathy with being a bully or victim Romantic How relationships parents cope with parenting stress Impact of parenting stress on parenting behaviours Parents involvement in their teens

education Further study of mindfulness and other interventions Mobilizing teachers knowledge to teens, parents, and Alan Rokeach + Thank you Ashley Brunsek Lab Manager

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