ACIDS AND BASES Chp. 16 - Mr. Nodado's Science Class

ACIDS AND BASES Chp. 16 - Mr. Nodado's Science Class

HW: Uses of Acids and Bases *Using reliable sources online, look for at least 5 acids and 5 bases (total of 10) ACID *specify the chemical name and formula *describe uses and other information BASE An Invisible Fire by Jeremy Brown

Summarize the events the occurred to William Turner and how Dr. Jeremy Brown was able to help him. #1.What happened? #2.Chemistry behind HF #3. How it affect the body and symptoms #4. Treatment that didnt work #5. Treatment that worked #6. End result Chem Standards: Acids and Bases 5a. Know observable properties of acids,

bases, and salt solutions. 5b. Know acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances. 5c. Know strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate. 5d. Know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions. Demo: Acid and Base *Use the bean bag to illustrate H+

Questions: *What is an acid, what is a base? *Who in this activity is the acid and who is the base? *Why are acids and bases important? What is an Acid? Base? Arrhenius Definition ACID BASE

Bronsted Lowry Defintion generates [H+] anything that Ex. HA + B => A- + H B+ in solution , donates a [H+] **[H+] and (proton donor) Each acid has a conjugate [H3O+] are the same

base (product which lost hydrogen)and each base has a conjugate acid (product anything that accepts a [H+] that gained the hydrogen) generates [OH-] in solution (proton (watch out for acceptor)

alcohols CH3OH, not a base) Ex. HNO2 + H2O => NO2- + H3O+ In this example: HNO2 is the acid, H2O is the base, NO2- is the conjugate base, and H3O+ is the conjugate acid. Acid Base Properties

PROPERTIES LITMUS TEST pH LEVEL ACID *Electrolytes (can conduct electricity) *Taste sour *corrodes metals

*concentrate is caustic Turn blue Less litmus to Red than 7 BASE *Electrolytes *Taste bitter, chalky *Feels soapy

Turn red litmus to blue Greater than 7 Questions: Which compound(s) could be an Arrhenius acid? (A) CaO (C) K2O (B) HCl (D) NH3

Which substance(s) could be an Arrhenius acid? (A) Ba(OH)2 (C) H3PO4 (B) CH3C=OOCH3 (D) NaCl Which substance(s) could be Arrhenius base? (A) KCl (C) KOH (B) CH3Cl (D) CH3OH

Examples: Which chemical equation represents the reaction of an Arrhenius acid and an Arrhenius base? (A) HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq) --> NaC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) (B) C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)--> 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) (C) Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq)--> ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) (D) BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) --> BaSO4(s) + 2 NaCl(aq) Examples: According Bronsted Lowry model, water acts as an acid when an H2O molecule (A) accepts an H+

(C) accepts an H(B) donates an H+ (D) donates an H- Which one is the conjugate acid? A B C D

Practice Problem Label each part of the acid-base reaction: (base, acid, conjugate base, conjugate acid) (1) HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl (2) H2O + NH3 OH- + NH4+ Practice Problems Write the equation for the acid and base reaction and label the following: acid/ base/ conjugate acid/ conjugate base: 1.HClO4 + OH-

2. NH3 + H2O TedEd Video Universal Indicator pH *pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (depends on concentration of H+ or H3O+ ) *pH 7 is considered neutral because it is the pH of pure water at 25 C.

*Formulas: pH= -log[H+] pOH = -log [OH-] pH + pOH = 14 *Comparing pH: for every zero in a number (ex. 10) the pH changes by 1 -- Ex. 100 times more acidic means the Water is amphoteric: both acid and base

Kw= ion product constant= 1.0 X 10-14 Kw= [OH-] [H+] = 1.0 X 10-14 Ex. If you have 3.96 x 10 -8 mol/L of [OH-], calculate the molarity of [H+] Acid/ Base Strength ACID BASE General Formula: HA + B <----> HB+ + ASTRONG

WEAK *completely dissociates *does NOT fully *_______ electrolyte dissociate *______ electrolyte Ex. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 Ex. Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 *completely dissociates *________electrolyte *high amount of OHEx.NaOH, LiOH, KOH *does NOT fully

dissociate *_______ electrolyte Ex. NH3 and CH3NH2 Practice Problems Binary VS. Mono- VS. DiVS. Ternary Names Formula

Polyprotic Hydrobromic Acid H3PO4 (PO4 = Phosphate) HCH3COO (CH3COO -1)= acetate Nitric Acid (NO3 -1) = nitrate

Solubility/ Conductivity of Electrolytes Video: pH demo =6DCBWK_Hg5w Conductivity of Solutions v=4WillWjxRWw

Practice Problems 1. Solution A has a 1.0x10-2 moles of HCl added to 250 mL of water (HINT: molarity is moles/L) A. Calculate the concentration of HCl (molarity) B. Calculate the pH (assume concentration of HCl = H+) C. Calculate the pOH 2. pH of 8.5 = ________ [H +] = __________[OH -] 3. pH ____ = 3.25 x10 -3 [H +] = __________ [OH-] 4. Using Kw, what is the molarity of [OH-] if you have 4.89 X 10 -4 mol/L of [H +] ? Practice Problem

5. Mr. Nodados favorite soda/pop is Coca Cola. It has a pH of 2.5. The total volume of is 355mL A.What is the [H +] concentration/molarity? B.What is the amount of moles of [H +] in this can? C. What is the pOH of this solution D. What is the [OH-] ? Lab: Determining pH of Household Materials *Groups of 4/ divide responsibility (experimenter/recorder/clean up) *Safety first and dont forget to clean up (gloves/googles) PART I: Gather all samples and write a prediction of the pH for each one

* < 5 mL of each sample *red and blue litmus paper * < 5 mL red cabbage indicator *test tubes (labelled) PART II: Cut a small piece of the red and blue litmus paper, dip in the sample. Record the color change, determine if its acid or base PART III: Add <5 mL of cabbage indicator to each sample. Using the pH color scale, determine the pH of each solution. Record. CLEAN UP! ACID-BASE STUDY GUIDE 1. What is the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions of acid/base 2. How does the color of litmus paper change when submerged in an acid? In

a base? How can we use universal indicator to determine pH? 3. If given an acid-base reaction, can you predict the products. Can you identify and label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. 4.What is the difference between a strong and weak acid/ strong and weak base? Do you know examples for each type? 5. What are the properties AND uses of acids and bases? 6. Review the lab and the article about the HF accident 7. Calculations to solve for pH, pOH, [OH-], [H+]. Predict the effect on [H+] concentration if pH changes. 8. Rules for naming acids (see acid-base packet) Vocabulary *electrolyte

*hydroxide *binary vs. ternary *conjugate acid/base *conductor *hydronium *Bronstead-Lowry *mono vs. polyprotic *amphoteric *proton donor acid/base

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