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Nursing Chapter 23 Body Mechanics, Positioning and Moving Inst.: Dr. Ashraf El - Jedi

Inactivity leads to deterioration of health. Multiple complications can occur among people with limited activity and movement. The consequences of inactivity are collectively referred to as disuse syndrome (signs and symptoms that result from inactivity). Nursing care activities such as positioning and moving clients reduce the

potential for disuse syndrome. Nurses can become injured, however, if they fail to use good posture and body mechanics while performing these activities (Table 23-1). 2 3 4

This chapter describes how to position and move clients to prevent complications associated with inactivity. It also discusses methods for protecting nurses from work related injuries. Basic terms are defined in Table 23-2. 5

6 Maintaining Good Posture Posture (position of the body, or the way in which it is held) affects a person's appearance, stamina, and ability to use the musculoskeletal system efficiently. Good posture, whether in a standing, sitting, or lying position, distributes

gravity through the center of the body over a wide base of support and is important for both clients and nurses (Fig. 23-1). 7 Figure 23-1 Good posture helps to align gravity through the center of the body. A wide stance provides a

stable base for support 8 When a person performs work while using poor posture, muscle spasms (sudden, forceful, involuntary muscle contractions) often result. They occur more often when

muscles are strained and forced to work beyond their capacity. 9 Standing To maintain good posture in a standing position

Keep the feet parallel Distribute weight equally on both feet

Bend the knees slightly Maintain the hips at an even level. Pull in the buttocks and hold the abdomen up Hold the chest up and slightly forward Keep the shoulders even and centered above the hips. Hold the head erect with the face forward 10 Figure 23-2

A) Good standing posture. ( B ) Poor standing posture.( 11 Sitting

In a good sitting position (Fig. 23-3), the buttocks and upper thighs become the base of support. Both feet rest on the floor. 12 Figure 23-3 A) Correct sitting posture

B ) Incorrect sitting posture. (Courtesy of Lowren West, New York, NY.) 13 Lying Down

Good posture in a lying position looks the same as in a standing position, except the person is horizontal (Fig. 23-4). 14 Figure 23-4 A) Correct lying posture. B) Incorrect lying posture.

(Courtesy of Lowren West, New York, NY) 15 Body Mechanics The use of proper body mechanics (efficient use of the musculoskeletal system) increases muscle effectiveness, reduces fatigue, and helps to avoid repetitive strain injuries.

16 17 Positioning Clients Good posture and body mechanics and assistive devices are necessary when inactive clients require

positioning and moving. An inactive client's position is changed to relieve pressure on bony areas of the body, promote functional mobility (alignment that maintains the potential for movement and ambulation), and provide for therapeutic needs. General principles for positioning are as follows: 18

Change the inactive client's position at least every 2 hours. Enlist the assistance of at least one other caregiver. Raise the bed to the height of the caregiver's elbow. Remove pillows and positioning devices. Unfasten drainage tubes from the bed linen. Turn the client as a complete unit to avoid twisting the spine.

Place the client in good alignment with joints slightly flexed. Replace pillows and positioning devices. Support limbs in a functional position Use elevation to relieve swelling or promote comfort. Provide skin care after repositioning. 19 Common Positions

Nurses commonly use six body positions when caring for bedridden clients: supine, lateral, lateral oblique, prone, Sims', and Fowler's . 20 Supine Position

In the supine position, the person lies on the back ( Fig. 23-6A). There are two primary concerns associated with the supine position: prolonged pressure, especially at the end of the spine, leads to skin breakdown; and gravity, combined with pressure on the toes from bed linen, creates a potential for foot drop (permanent dysfunctional position caused by shortening of the calf muscles and lengthening of the opposing muscles on the anterior leg; Fig. 23-7).

21 Figure 23-6: A) Supine position 22 Lateral Position

With the lateral position (side-lying position; see Fig. 23-6B), foot drop is of less concern because gravity does not pull down the feet as happens when clients are supine. Nevertheless, unless the upper shoulder and arm are supported, they may rotate forward and interfere with breathing. 23

B: ) Lateral position 24 Prone Position The prone position (one in which the client lies on the abdomen; see Fig. 23-6D) is an alternative position for the person with skin breakdown from

pressure ulcers. The prone position also provides good drainage from bronchioles, stretches the trunk and extremities, and keeps the hips in an extended position. The prone position improves arterial oxygenation in critically ill clients with adult respiratory distress syndrome and others who are mechanically ventilated . The prone position poses a nursing challenge for assessing and communicating with clients, however, and it is uncomfortable for clients with recent abdominal surgery or 25back pain.

: D ) Prone position. 26 Sims' Position In Sims' position (semi-prone position), the client lies on the left side with the right knee

drawn up toward the chest (see Fig. 23-6E). The left arm is positioned along the client's back, and the chest and abdomen are allowed to lean forward. Sims' position also is used for examination of and procedures involving the rectum and vagina. 27 E ) Sims' position

28 Fowler's Position Fowler's position (semi-sitting position) makes it easier for the client to eat, talk, and look around. Three variations are common (see Fig. 23-6F). In a , the P.522

In a low Fowler's position, head is elevated to 30 degrees. A mid-Fowler's or semi-Fowler's position refers to an elevation of up to 45 degrees. A high Fowler's position is an elevation of 60 to 90 degrees. The knees may not be elevated, but doing so relieves strain on the lower spine. Fowler's position is especially helpful for clients with dyspnea because it causes the abdominal organs to drop away from the diaphragm. Relieving

pressure on the diaphragm allows the exchange of a greater volume of air. Sitting for a prolonged period, however, decreases blood flow to tissues in the coccyx area and increases the risk for pressure ulcers in that area. 29 (F ) Fowler's position. 30

31 Positioning Devices 32 Adjustable Bed The adjustable bed can be raised or lowered

and allows the position of the head and knees to be changed. 33 Mattress A comfortable, supportive mattress is firm but flexible enough to permit good body

alignment. 34 Bed Board A bed board (rigid structure placed under a mattress) provides additional skeletal support

35 Pillows Pillows are used to support and elevate a body part. 36

Turning and Moving Clients Assistive devices and additional caregivers are needed when turning or moving a client who cannot change from one position to another independently or who needs help doing so . 37

Trochanter Rolls Trochanter rolls (Fig. 23-10) prevent the legs from turning outward. 38 Hand Rolls

Hand rolls (Fig. 23-11) are devices that preserve the client's functional ability to grasp and pick up objects. Hand rolls prevent contractures (permanently shortened muscles that resist stretching) of the fingers. 39 Foot Boards, Boots, and Foot

Splints Foot boards, boots, and splints are devices that prevent foot drop by keeping the feet in a functional position (Fig. 23-12). 40 Trapeze

A trapeze is a triangular piece of metal hung by a chain over the head of the bed (Fig. 23-13). 41 Protective Devices 42

Side Rails Side rails (Fig. 23-14) are a valuable device to aid clients in changing their position and moving about while in bed. With side rails in place, the client can safely turn from side to side and sit up in bed. 43

Mattress Overlays Mattress overlays are accessory items made of foam or containing gel, air, or water that nurses place over a standard hospital mattress. 44

Static Air Mattress A static air pressure mattress is filled with a fixed volume of air 45 Alternating Air Mattress

An alternating air mattress (Fig. 23-15) is similar to a static one with one exception: every other channel inflates as the next one deflates. 46 Water Mattress

A water mattress supports the body and equalizes the pressure per square inch over its surface. 47 Transferring Clients

Transfer (moving a client from place to place) refers to moving a client from bed to a chair, toilet, or stretcher and back to bed again. The client assists in an active transfer. 48 Nursing Implications

Impaired Physical Mobility Risk for Injury Risk for Disuse Syndrome 49

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