A Discussion of Some Intuitions of Defeasible Reasoning

A Discussion of Some Intuitions of Defeasible Reasoning

Chapter 6 Applications Grigoris Antoniou Frank van Harmelen 1 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 2 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Setting

Elsevier is a leading scientific publisher. Its products are organized mainly along traditional lines: 3 Subscriptions to journals Online availability of these journals has until now not really changed the organisation of the productline Customers of Elsevier can take subscriptions to online content Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Problem 4 Traditional journals are vertical products Division into separate sciences covered by distinct journals is no longer satisfactory Customers of Elsevier are interested in covering certain topic areas that spread across the traditional disciplines/journals The demand is rather for horizontal products Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Problem (2) Currently, it is difficult for large publishers to offer such horizontal products 5 Barriers of physical and syntactic heterogeneity can be solved (with XML) The semantic problem remains unsolved We need a way to search the journals on a coherent set of concepts against which all of these journals are indexed

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology Ontologies and thesauri (very lightweight ontologies) have proved to be a key technology for effective information access 6 They help to overcome some of the problems of free-text search They relate and group relevant terms in a specific domain

They provide a controlled vocabulary for indexing information Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology (2) A number of thesauri have been developed in different domains of expertise Medical information: MeSH and Elseviers life science thesaurus EMTREE RDF is used as an interoperability format between heterogeneous data sources

EMTREE is itself represented in RDF 7 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology (3) Each of the separate data sources is mapped onto this unifying ontology 8 The ontology is then used as the single point of entry for all of these data sources Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Elsevier The Results Elsevier has sponsored the DOPE project (Drug Ontology Project for Elsevier) - In the interface used, the EMTREE ontology was used to: - 9 The EMTREE thesaurus was used to index millions of medical abstracts and full text articles

disambiguate the original free-text user query categorize the results produce a visual clustering of the search results narrow or widen the search query in a meaningful way Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer DOPE Search and Browse Interface 10 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Openacademia The Setting 12 Information about scientific publications is often maintained by individual researchers Reference management software such as EndNote and BibTeX helps researchers to maintain personal collections of bibliographic references Most researchers have to maintain a Web page about publications for interested peers from other institutes Often personal reference management and the maintenance of Web pages are isolated efforts The author of a new publication adds the reference to his

own collection and updates his Web page Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Openacademia The Problem Maintaining personal references and Web pages about publications should not require redundant efforts One can achieve this by directly using individual bibliographical records generate personal Web pages and joined publication lists for Web pages at the group or institutional level 13 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Openacademia The Problem (2) Several - - 14 problems need to be solved: Information from different files and possibly in different formats has to be collected and integrated Duplicate information should be detected and merged It should be possible to query for specific selections of the bibliographic entries and represent them in customized layouts Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Openacademia The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology All tasks in openacademia are performed on RDF representations of the data, and only standard ontologies are used to describe the meaning of the data Moreover, W3C standards are used for the transformation and presentation of the information 15 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Functionality The

most immediate service of openacademia is to enable generating an HTML representation of a personal collection of publications and publishing it on the Web This requires filling out a single form on the Web site, which generates the code (one line of javaScript!) that needs to be inserted into the body of the home page 16 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Functionality (2) The code inserts the publication list in the page dynamically, and thus there is no need to update the page separately if the

underlying collection changes The appearance of the publication list can be customized by a variety of style sheets One can also generate an RSS feed from the collection 17 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Functionality (3) The RSS feeds of openacademia are RDFbased and can also be consumed by any RDF-aware software Research groups can install their own openacademia server Groups can have their RSS feeds as well 18

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Functionality (4) There is also an AJAX-based interface for browsing and searching the publication collection which builds queries and displays the results This interface offers a number of visualizations (e.g. see publications along a time line that can be scrolled using a mouse) 19 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

AJAX-based Query interface 20 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Timeline Widget 21 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Information Sources Openacademia uses the RDF-based FOAF (Friend of a Friend) format as a schema for

information about persons and groups To have their information included in openacademia researchers need to have a FOAF profile that contains at least their name and a link to a file with their publications Anyone can generate a FOAF profile 22 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Information Sources (2) To be able to make selections on groups, information about group membership is required This can also be specified in a FOAF file Alternatively, it can be generated from a database

23 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Information Sources (3) For data about publications, openacademia uses the Semantic Web Research Community (SWRC) ontology as a basic schema It also accepts BibTeX The BibTeX files are translated to RDF using the BibTex-2-RDF service, which creates instance data for the SWRC ontology 24 Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Information Sources (4) 25 A simple extension of the SWRC ontology was necessary to preserve the sequence of authors of publications To this end the properties swrc-ext:authorList and swrc-ext:editorList are defined, which have rdf:Seq as range, comprising an ordered list of authors The crawler in openacademia collects the FOAF

profiles and publication files All data are subsequently stored in an RDF database Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Integration The system has to deal with the increasing semantic heterogeneity of information sources Heterogeneity affects both the schema and the instance levels The schemas used are stable, lightweight Web ontologies, so their mapping causes no problem 26 Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Integration (2) 27 Openacademia uses a bridging ontology that specifies the relations between important classes in both ontologies (e.g. swrc:Author should be considered a sub-class of foaf:Person) Heterogeneity on the instance level arises from using different identifiers in the sources for denoting the same real-world objects This certainly affects FOAF data collected from the Web, as well as publication information Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Integration (3) A so-called smusher is used to match foaf:Person instances based on name and inverse functional properties - 28 e.g if two persons have the same value for their e-mail addresses (or checksums), we can conclude that the two persons are the same

Publications are matched on a combination of properties The instance matches that are found are stored in the RDF store using the owl:sameAs property Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Integration (4) These rules express the reflexive, symmetric and transitive nature of the property as well as the intended meaning, namely, the equality of property values 29 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Presentation After all information has been merged, the triple store can be queried to produce publications lists according to a variety of criteria, including personal, group, or publication facets The online interface helps users to build such queries against the publication repository 30 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Presentation (2)

31 The following query, formulated in the SeRQL query language, returns all publications authored by the members of the AI department (uniquely identified by its home page) in 2004 Note that the successful resolution of this query relies on the schema and instance matching described in the previous section Researchers can change their personal profiles and update their publication lists without the need to consult or notify anyone Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Presentation (2)

32 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 33 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication

Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster The Setting 34

The openacademia system uses a semicentralized solution for collecting, storing and sharing bibliographic information Centralized, because it harvests data into a single centralized repository Semi-centralized because it harvests the bibliographic data from the files of individual researchers In this section we describe a fully distributed approach to the same problem Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster The Problem Any centralized solution relies on the performance of the centralized node in the system -

35 How often does the crawler refresh the collected dataitems, how reliable is the central server, will the central server become a performance bottleneck? Many researchers share their data only as long as they are able to maintain local control over the information, instead of handing it over to a central server outside their control Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster The Problem (2) With Bibster, researchers may want to:

- 36 Query a singe specific peer, a specific set of peers, or the entire network of peers Search for bibliographic entries using simple keyword searches, but also more advanced, semantic searches Integrate results of a query into a local repository for future use. Such data may in turn be used to answer queries by other peers. They may also be interested in in updating items that are already locally stored Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster The Contribution of the Semantic Web Technology Ontologies

are used by Bibster for a number of purposes: - 37 importing data, formulating queries, routing queries, and processing answers Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Importing Data The system enables users to import their own

bibliographic metadata into a local repository Bibliographic entries made available to Bibster by users are automatically aligned to two ontologies - 38 The first ontology (SWRC) describes different generic aspects of bibliographic metadata The second ontology (ACM Topic Ontology) describes specific categories of literature for the computer science domain Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Formulating queries Queries are formulated in terms of the two

ontologies Queries may concern fields like author or publication type, or specific computer science terms 39 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Routing queries Queries are routed through the network depending on the expertise models of the peers describing which concepts from the ACM ontology a peer can answer queries on A matching function determines how closely the semantic content of a query matches the expertise model of a peer

Routing is then done on the basis of this semantic ranking 40 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Processing Answers 41 Because of the distributed nature and potentially large size of the p2p network, an answer set might be very large and contain many duplicate answers Because of the semistructured nature of

bibliographic metadata, such duplicates are often not exactly identical copies Ontologies help to measure the semantic similarity between the different answers and remove apparent duplicates as identified by the similarity function Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster The Results The following screenshot indicates how the use cases are realized in Bibster - 42 The scope widget allows for defining the targeted peers The Search and Search Details widgets allow for keyword and semantic search

The Results Table and BibTeXView widgets allow for browsing and reusing query results The query results are visualized in a list grouped by duplicates They may be integrated into the local repository, or exported into formats, such as BibTeX and HTML Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Bibster P2P Bibliography finder 43 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 44 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Audi The Problem Data integration is also a huge problem internal to companies It is the highest cost factor in the information technology budget of large companies Audi operates thousands of databases Traditional middleware improves and simplifies the integration process

45 But it misses the sharing of information based on the semantics of the data Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology Ontologies can rationalize disparate data sources into one body of information Without disturbing existing applications, by:

46 creating ontologies for data and content sources adding generic domain information The ontology is mapped to the data sources giving applications direct access to the data through the ontology Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Camera Example twin mirror 75-300mm zoom 4.0-4.5

1/2000 sec. to 10 sec. 47 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Camera Example (2) twin mirror 300mm zoom 4.5 1/2000 sec. to 10 sec.

48 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Camera Example (3) Human readers can see that these two different formats talk about the same object 49

We know that SLR is a kind of camera, and that fstop is a synonym for aperture Ad hoc integration of these data sources by translator is possible Would only solve this specific integration problem We would have to do the same again when we encountered the next data format for cameras Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Camera Ontology in OWL

50 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Using the Ontology Suppose that an application A is using the second encoding is receiving data from an application B

using the first encoding Suppose it encounters SLR 51 Ontology returns SLR is a type of Camera A relation between something it doesnt know (SLR) to something it does know (Camera) Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Audi Using the Ontology (2) Suppose A encounters f-stop

52 The Ontology returns: f-stop is synonymous with aperture Bridges the terminology gap between something A doesnt know to something A does know Syntactic divergence is no longer a hindrance Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 53 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Swiss Life The Setting Swiss Life is one of Europes leading life insurers 11,000 employees, $14 billion of written premiums Active in about 50 different countries The most important resources of any company for solving knowledge intensive tasks are:

54 The tacit knowledge, personal competencies, and skills of its employees Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Swiss Life The Problem One of the major building blocks of enterprise knowledge management is: A skills repository can be used to:

55 An electronically accessible repository of peoples capabilities, experiences, and key knowledge areas enable a search for people with specific skills expose skill gaps and competency levels direct training as part of career planning document the companys intellectual capital Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Swiss Life The Problem (2) Problems

56 How to list the large number of different skills? How to organise them so that they can be retrieved across geographical and cultural boundaries? How to ensure that the repository is updated frequently? Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Swiss Life The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology Hand-built ontology to cover skills in three

organizational units 57 Information Technology, Private Insurance and Human Resources Individual employees within Swiss Life were asked to create home pages based on form filling driven by the skills-ontology The corresponding collection could be queried using a form-based interface that generated RQL queries Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Swiss Life Skills Ontology 1 58 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Swiss Life Skills Ontology (2) 59 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Swiss Life Skills Ontology (3)

60 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 61 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch The Setting An industrial research consortium focused on information technology in energy EnerSearch has a structure very different from a traditional research company 62 Research projects are carried out by a varied and changing group of researchers spread over different countries Many of them are not employees of EnerSearch Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch The Setting (2) EnerSearch is organized as a virtual organization Owned by a number of firms in the industry sector that have an express interest in the research being carried out Because of this wide geographical spread, EnerSearch also has the character of a virtual organisation from a knowledge distribution point of view 63 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

EnerSearch The Problem Dissemination of knowledge key function The information structure of the web site leaves much to be desired It does not satisfy the needs of info seekers, e.g. 64 Does load management lead to cost-saving? If so, what are the required upfront investments? Can powerline communication be technically competitive to ADSL or cable modems? Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology It is possible to form a clear picture of what kind of topics and questions would be relevant for these target groups It is possible to define a domain ontology that is sufficiently stable and of good quality 65 This lightweight ontology consisted only of a taxonomical hierarchy Needed only RDF Schema expressivity Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch Lunchtime Ontology ... IT Hardware Software Applications Communication Powerline Agent Electronic Commerce Agents Multi-agent systems Intelligent agents Market/auction Resource allocation Algorithms 66

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch Use of Ontology Used in a number of different ways to drive navigation tools on the EnerSearch web site 67 Semantic map of the EnerSearch web site Semantic distance between EnerSearch authors in terms of their fields of research and publication Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Semantic Map of Part of the EnerSearch Web Site 68 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Semantic Distance between EnerSearch Authors 69 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer EnerSearch QuizRDF

QuizRDF aims to combine 70 an entirely ontology based display a traditional keyword based search without any semantic grounding The user can type in general keywords It also displays those concepts in the hierarchy which describe these papers All these disclosure mechanisms (textual and graphic, searching or browsing) based on a single underlying lightweight ontology

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 71 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System

Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Setting Traditionally learning has been characterized by the following properties: 72

Educator-driven Linear access Time- and locality-dependent Learning has not been personalized but rather aimed at mass participation Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Setting (2) The changes are already visible in higher education 73

Virtual universities Flexibility and new educational means Students can increasingly make choices about pace of learning, content, evaluation methods Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Setting (3) Even greater promise: life long learning activities 74

Improvement of the skills of its employees ic critical to companies Organizations require learning processes that are just-in-time, tailored to their specific needs These requirements are not compatible with traditional learning, but e-learning shows great promise for addressing these concerns Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Problem E-learning is not driven by the instructor Learners can: Access material in an order that is not predefined Compose individual courses by selecting

educational material Learning material must be equipped with additional information (metadata) to support effective indexing and retrieval 75 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Problem (2) Standards (IEEE LOM) have emerged

Standards suffer from lack of semantics 76 E.g. educational and pedagogical properties, access rights and conditions of use, and relations to other educational resources This is common to all solutions based solely on metadata (XML-like approaches) Combining of materials by different authors may be difficult Retrieval may not be optimally supported Retrieval and organization of learning resources must be made manually Could be done by a personalized automated agent instead! Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology Establish a promising approach for satisfying the elearning requirements Learner-centric 77 E.g. ontology and machine-processable metadata Learning materials, possibly by different authors, can be

linked to commonly agreed ontologies Personalized courses can be designed through semantic querying Learning materials can be retrieved in the context of actual problems, as decided by the learner Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer E-Learning The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology (2) Flexible access Integration

78 Knowledge can be accessed in any order the learner wishes Appropriate semantic annotation will still define prerequisites Nonlinear access will be supported A uniform platform for the business processes of organizations Learning activities can be integrated in these processes Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Ontologies for E-Learning Some mechanism for establishing a shared

understanding is needed: ontologies In e-learning we distinguish between three types of knowledge (ontologies): 79 Content Pedagogy Structure Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Content Ontologies

Basic concepts of the domain in which learning takes place Include the relations between concepts, and basic properties 80 E.g., the study of Classical Athens is part of the history of Ancient Greece, which in turn is part of Ancient History The ontology should include the relation is part of and the fact that it is transitive (e.g., expressed in OWL) COs use relations to capture synonyms, abbreviations, etc. Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Pedagogy Ontologies Pedagogical issues can be addressed in a pedagogy ontology (PO) E.g. material can be classified as lecture, tutorial, example, walk-through, exercise, solution, etc. 81 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Structure Ontologies

Define the logical structure of the learning materials Typical knowledge of this kind includes hierarchical and navigational relations like previous, next, hasPart, isPartOf, requires, and isBasedOn Relationships between these relations can also be defined 82 E.g., hasPart and isPartOf are inverse relations Inferences drawn from learning ontologies cannot be very deep Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 83 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning

Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Services Web sites that do not merely provide static information, but involve interaction with users and often allow users to effect some action Simple Web services involve a single Webaccessible program, sensor, device Complex Web services are composed of simpler services

84 Often they require ongoing interaction with the user The user can make choices or provide information conditionally Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer A Complex Web Service User interaction with an online music store involves 85

searching for CDs and titles by various criteria reading reviews and listening to samples adding CDs to a shopping cart providing credit card details, shipping details, and delivery address Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Problem SOAP, WSDL, UDDI and BPEL4WS are the standard technology combination to build a Web service application They fail to achieve the goals of automation and interoperability because the require humans in the loop WSDL specifies the functionality of a service

only at a syntactic level but does not describe the meaning of the Web service functionality 86 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology The Semantic Web community addressed the limitations of current Web service technology by augmenting the service descriptions with a semantic layer in order to achieve Automatic discovery, composition, monitoring, and execution

The automation of these tasks is highly desirable 87 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Contribution of Semantic Web Technology Example Scenario The example task is specializing the more generic task of finding the closest medical provides A strategy for performing this task is

88 Retrieve the details of all medical providers Select the closest by computing the distance between the location of the provider and a reference location Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer OWL-S service ontology 89 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Contribution of Semantic Web

Technology Example Scenario (2) Semantic Web service technology aims to automate performing such tasks based on the semantic description of Web services A common characteristic of all emerging frameworks for semantic Web service descriptions is the they combine two kinds of ontologies to obtain a service description 90 A generic Web service ontology A domain ontology Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Generic Web Service Ontologies OWL-S OWL-S ontology is conceptually divided into four subontologies for specifying 91 What the service does (Profile) How the service works (Process) How the service is implemented (Grounding) A fourth ontology (Service) contains the Service concept, which links together the ServiceProfile, ServiceModel and ServiceGrounding Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer The Profile Ontology Profile The functionality offered by the service The semantic type of the inputs and outputs The details of the service provider Several service parameters, such as quality rating or geographic radius Profile 92 specifies :

is a subclass of ServiceProfile Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Profile Ontology (2) For 93 each Profile instance we associate the process it describes its functional characteristics together with their type Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer The Profile Ontology example Service MedicareSupplier: *Profile : FindMedicareSupplierByZip (hasProc P1) (I (ZipCode), O (SupplierDetails)) *Profile : FindMedicareSupplierByCity (hasProc P2) (I (City), O (SupplierDetails)) *Profile : FindMedicareSupplierBySupply (hasProc P3) (I (SupplyType), O (SupplierDetails)) *ProcessModel : *WSDLGrounding : 94 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Process Ontology

Many complex services consist of smaller executed in a certain order For example, buying a book at Amazon.com involves using a browsing service and a paying service OWL-S allows describing such internal process models These are useful for several purposes 95 One can check that the business process of the offering service is appropriate One can monitor the execution stage of a service These process models van be used to automatically compose Web services

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Process Ontology Example Service MedicareSupplier : *Profile : *ProcessModel : CompositeProcess : MedicareProcess : Choice AtomicProcess : P1 (I (ZipCode), O (SupplierDetails)) AtomicProcess : P2 (I (City), O (SupplierDetails)) AtomicProcess : P3 (I (SupplyType), O (SupplierDetails)) *WSDLGrounding : 96 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Profile to Process Bridge A profile contains several links to a Process Next figure shows these links Profile states the Process it describes through the unique property has_process IOPEs of the Profiles correspond to the IOPEs of the Process 97 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Profile to Process Bridge (2) 98 Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Profile to Process Bridge (3) IOPEs play different roles for the Profile and for the Process In the Profile ontology they are treated equally as parameters of the Profile In the Process ontology only inputs and outputs are regarded as subproperties of the process:parameter property 99 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Profile to Process Bridge (4)

The precondition and effects are just simple properties of the Process IOPEs are properties both for Profile and Process The link between the IOPEs in the Profile and Process part of the OWL-S descriptions is created by the refersTo property which has 100 The fact that they are treated differently at a conceptual level is misleading As domain ParameterDescription

Ranges over the process:parameter Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Grounding ontology The grounding to a WSDL description is performed according to three rules: 101 Each AtomicProcess corresponds to one WSDL operation Each input of an AtomicProcess is mapped to a

corresponding messagepart in the input message of the WSDL operation. Similarly for outputs The type of each WSDL message part can bi specified in terms of a OWL-S parameter Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer The Grounding ontology Example Service MedicareSupplier : *Profile : *ProcessModel : *WSDLGrounding: WsdlAtomicProcessGrounding : Gr1 (P1>op:GetSupplierByZipCode) WsdlAtomicProcessGrounding : Gr2 (P1->op:GetSupplierByCity) WsdlAtomicProcessGrounding : Gr3 (P1->op:GetSupplierBySupplyType) 102

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Design Principles of OWL-S Semantic 103 versus Syntactic descriptions OWL-S distinguishes between the semantic and syntactic aspects of the described entity The Profile and Process ontologies allow for a semantic description of the Web service, and the WSDL description encodes its syntactic aspects

The Grounding ontology provides a mapping between the semantic and the syntactic parts of a description facilitating flexible association between them Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Design Principles of OWL-S (2) Generic 104 versus domain knowledge OWL-S offers a core set of primitives to specify the type of Web service

These descriptions can be enriched with domain knowledge specified in a separate domain ontology This modeling choice allows using the core set of primitives across several domains Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Design Principles of OWL-S (3) Modularity Another feature of OWL-S is the partitioning of the description over several concepts There are several advantages of this modular modeling

It is easy to reuse certain parts Service specification becomes flexible because if is possible to specify only the part that is relevant for the service Any OWL-S description is easy to extend by specializing the OWL-S concepts 105 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology Externally defined knowledge plays a major role in each OWL-S description OWL-S offers a generic framework to

describe a service, but to make it truly useful, domain knowledge is required 106 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology (2) 107 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology (3)

Previous figure specifies a DataStructure hierarchy and a Functionality ability The Functionality hierarch contains a classification of service capabilities Two generic classes of service capabilities are shown here 108 One for finding a medical supplier One for calculating distances between two locations Each of these generic categories has more specialized capabilities either by restricting the type of the output parameters or the input parameters Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology (4) The complexity of the reasoning tasks that can be performed with semantic Web service descriptions is conditioned by several factors 109 All Web services in a domain should use concepts from the same domain ontology in their descriptions The richness of the available knowledge is crucial for performing complex reasoning

Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology Example Scenario The right services for the task can be selected automatically from a collection of services Semantic metadata allow a flexible selection that can retrieve services that partially match a request but are still potentially interesting 110 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Web Service Domain Ontology Example Scenario (2) A service that finds details of medical suppliers will be considered a match for a request for services that retrieve details of Medicare suppliers, if the Web service domain ontology specifies that a MedicareSupplier is a type of MedicalSupplier This matchmaking is superior to the keywordbased search offered by UDDI 111 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Web Service Domain Ontology Example Scenario (3) The

composition of several services into a more complex service can also be automated After being discovered and composed based on their semantic descriptions, the services can be invoked to solve the task at hand 11 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Lecture Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 113 Horizontal Information Products at Elsevier Openacademia: Distributed Publication Management Bibster: Data Exchange in a P2P System Data Integration at Audi Skill Finding at Swiss Life Think Tank Portal at EnerSearch E-Learning Web Services Other Scenarios Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Multimedia Collection Indexing at Scotland Yard

Theft of art and antique objects International databases of stolen art objects exist 114 It is difficult to locate specific objects in these databases Different parties are likely to offer different descriptions Human experts are needed to match objects to database entries Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Multimedia Collection Indexing at Scotland Yard The Solution Develop controlled vocabularies such as the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) from the Getty Trust, or Iconclass thesaurus Extend them into full-blown ontologies Develop automatic classifiers using ontological background knowledge Deal with the ontology-mapping problem 115 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Online Procurement at

Daimler-Chrysler The Problem Static, long-term agreements with a fixed set of suppliers can be replaced by dynamic, short-term agreements in a competitive open marketplace Whenever a supplier is offering a better deal, Daimler-Chrysler wants to be able to switch Major drivers behind B2B e-commerce 116 Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer Online Procurement at Daimler-Chrysler The Solution Rosetta Net is an organization dedicated to

such standardization efforts XML-based, Use 117 no semantics RDF Schema and OWL instead Product descriptions would carry their semantics on their sleeve Much more liberal online B2B procurement processes would exist than currently possible Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Device Interoperability at Nokia 118 Explosive proliferation of digital devices: PDAs, mobiles, digital cameras, laptops, wireless access in public places, GPS-enabled cars Interoperability among these devices? The pervasiveness and the wireless nature of these devices require network architectures to support automatic, ad hoc configuration A key technology of true ad hoc networks is service discovery Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer Device Interoperability at Nokia (2) Current service discovery and capability description require a priori identification of what to communicate or discuss A more attractive approach would be serendipitous interoperability 119 Interoperability under unchoreographed conditions Devices necessarily designed to work together Chapter 6 A Semantic Web Primer

Device Interoperability at Nokia (3) These devices should be able to: Discover each others functionality Take advantage of it Devices must be able to understand other devices and reason about their functionality Ontologies are required to make such unchoreographed understanding of functionalities possible 120 Chapter 6

A Semantic Web Primer

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