A Development Program for Front Line Nurse Manager Preceptors

A Development Program for Front Line Nurse Manager Preceptors

A Development Program for Front Line Nurse Manager Preceptors MARY ANNE MARRA, DNP, RN, NEA-BC CHIEF NURSING OFFICER Objectives Discuss the process utilized to develop the nurse manager preceptor program Review the measurement of pre-program and post-program change in leadership skills Examine the implementation of the preceptor model with a small test of change with a new nurse manager Present the nurse manager orientation tools developed during the program Definitions Front Line Nurse Manager (FLNM) Responsible for 24 operations of one or more units for patient care delivery Challenges of current healthcare environment, (Heller, Esposito-Herr, Tom, 2004) Preceptor

Facilitates acquisition of skills for role Student Entry level practitioner Advance Practice (McClure and Black, 2013) Background and Significance Significance of the Role of Nurse Manager Development of effective work team Create and sustain healthy work environment Outcomes Patient safety Customer Satisfaction Staff Satisfaction Increase in organizational effectiveness (Sherman and Pross, 2010), (Warshawsky, Rayens, Stefaniak and Rahman, 2013), (Baxter and Warshawsky, 2014). Nurse Manager Transition to Role The lack of a formal mechanism to orient new FLNM to the role impacts on:

Properly prepare FLNM for the responsibilities Quality and Safety Resource Allocation Customer Service (Bressler and Fisher, 2012) Daily decisions regarding the cost of care delivery (McLarty and McCartney, 2009) Lack of FLNM engagement in the role and lead to job dissatisfaction and turnover Identifying Preceptor Participants FLNM Preceptors recruited from four acute care hospitals in New Jersey Letter mailed to CNOs of acute care hospitals Participant deemed a competent NM, to serve as preceptor Acute Care Hospitals NJ Have a FLNM that meets the criteria for participation 3 years or more experience in the role. Competent as per Benners model nurse who has been in the same job for 2-3 years, has the ability to consider long-term goals as they relate to actions gains perspective based on conscious, abstract and analytical thinking regarding the problem.

CNOs in New Jersey have identified need for FLNM development (Cadmus and Johansen, 2012) AONE Framework Healthcare Leadership Alliance Competency Model, (Stefl, 2008) Nurse Manager Leadership Collaborative, AONE, AACN, AORN, Learning Domain Framework (Fennimore and Wolf, 2011) Essentials of Nurse Manager Orientation Program Objectives Create an FLNM Preceptor Training Program Develop FLNM preceptors for their role. Build upon competency as FLNM Build upon constructs of the Essentials of Nurse Manager Orientation

Objectives: Increase FLNM preceptors ability to translate ENMO concepts into organizational specific practice and performance metrics as measured through pre and post program self-assessment utilizing the Nurse Manager Skills Inventory. Increase CNO evaluation of the FLNM preceptor skills as measured by pre and post program rating of the FLNM preceptor by the CNO utilizing the Nurse Manager Skills Inventory. Evaluate the congruence between the pre and post evaluation of the FLNM preceptor skills as reported in the Nurse Manager Skills Inventory assessment by the FLNM preceptor and the CNO. Demonstrate application of ENMO in the clinical setting as measured by the implementation of a financial skills project at the completion of the didactic session on the finance competency. Analyze the FLNM preceptors evaluation of the program. Theoretical Framework Patricia Benner Novice to Expert Novice Advanced Beginner

Competent Proficient Expert As new FLNM assumes the new role they enter at the level of Novice Competent manager a preceptor as per Benner definition nurse who has been in the same job for 2-3 years has the ability to consider long-term goals as they relate to actions gains perspective based on conscious, abstract and analytical thinking regarding the problem. This helps the nurse to achieve greater efficiency and organization in the performance of tasks. ( Benner, 1984) Literature Review Search conducted using CINAHL, Medline and Business Source Primer databases Concepts of 1) the relationship of the nurse manager role to quality outcomes and staff satisfaction 2) nurse manager competencies and nurse manager development 3) preceptors in nurse development and nurse manager preceptors Manager Strong performance

Critical Thinking (Zori, Nosek and Musil, 2010) Transformational Leadership Style (Casida and Parker, 2011). Positive work environment for staff and Improved outcomes (Boev, 2012) Literature Review Types of nurse manager leadership development programs Weekly informational meetings paired with peer coaching over a six month period (Codier, Kamikawa, and Molina Kooker, 2011) A nurse manager orientation program (Cohen, 2013) An online portal providing a repository of information for FLNMs (Parry, et. al., 2012) Didactic sessions to educate about leadership skills (Maryniak, 2011) A leadership development program for nurse managers based upon the Nurse Manager Leadership Domain of AONE (Fennimore and Wolf, 2011) A yearlong program including: a 4 day workshop mentoring support over a one year period

organizational support to implement leadership projects in the healthcare setting (McPhee, et. al., 2011) Literature Review Preceptors Other nurse managers Chief Nursing Officers Directors of Nursing Peer coaching (Hawkins, Carte and Nugent, 2009) Preceptors must be competent to provide guidance(Palumbo, Rambur and Boyer, 2012) Benner, Novice to Expert Found to be a framework to structure nurse manager development from novice to expert Methods Setting and Target Population

FLNM who are competent, based upon Benner (1984) definition Competent manager a preceptor as per Benner definition nurse who has been in the same job for 2-3 years has the ability to consider long-term goals as they relate to actions gains perspective based on conscious, abstract and analytical thinking regarding the problem. FLNM who is person of choice to serve as preceptor for new FLNMs in the organization Four 8 hour didactic sessions Build on the constructs of the Essentials of Nurse Manager Orientation (ENMO) online program ( AONE, 2013) Prepare list and collate organizational documents, policies and procedures, forms to assist nurse manager during orientation. Small test of change project Preceptors work with a new nurse manager in their respective organization on a change project, Lead Your Team constructs Methods and Data Pre and Post program assessment Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Preceptor, pre, post program and two months post program completion

Preceptor manager, pre and two months post program completion Nurse Manager Orientee, pre and post small test of change project Leadership Practices Inventory Preceptor, pre and post program Nurse Manager Orientee, pre and post small test of change project Demographic data collected on FLNM Preceptor New FLNM CNO Organization Framework Essentials of Nurse Manager Orientation (AONE) Patricia Benner (1984) Novice to Expert Project Activities

Approval from the Rutgers University IRB for the implementation of the project. Develop a curriculum for training of FLNM preceptors based upon the ENMO content. Expand on the ENMO orientation content Discussion of specific examples of application of the principles within the organizations of the participants Organizational specific documents Policies Procedures Forms Anecdotal examples Project Activities Recruitment of Participants Recruited from 4 acute care hospitals Letter mailed to acute care hospital CNOs One successful recruitment Personal emails to two CNOs One successful recruitment One un-successful for recruitment Concerned about time commitment for the participation in the program for a nurse manager

One connection through director of education to CNO Telephone interviews with CNOs to discuss program and confirm commitment CNOs identified nurse manager participants CNOs agreed to pay tuition for ENMO curriculum Telephone interviews with participants to discuss program participation, ENMO program and data requirements Email communication to establish best dates for program meetings. Project Activities Participants completed modules of the ENMO Four 8 hour didactic meetings, November 15, 18 and December 5 and 13th. Discussion of the ENMO topics Discussion and brainstorming of list of items needed for a nurse manager orientation Developed into list to of items to be collated into orientation book Discussion of activities for a new nurse manager to complete during orientation Developed into Nurse Manager Orientation Checklist

Evaluation Plan Methods/Indicators Demographics Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Change over time pre and post program by the Preceptor Manager Manager orientee Comparison of Preceptor and Manager evaluation Leadership Practices Inventory Change over time pre and post program Preceptor Manager Orientee Project Implementation by preceptor with new FLNM Lead the People project completed by new manager with preceptor Post program evaluation by completed by the preceptor Demographics Preceptor

CNO Orientee Age Range 45-54 Median= 50.5 Range 30-45 Median= 34.0 Range 58-59 Median= 58 Sex F=4 M= 0 F=3 Male = 1

F=4 Male= 0 Ethnicity Asian = 1 Black/African American= 2 White = 1 Asian = 1 Black/African American = 1 White = 2 White = 4 Years as Registered Nurse Range 21-32 years Median= 22 years Range 8-24 years Median = 8 years

Range 36-39 years Median= 37.0 Months/Years as Nurse Manager/ CNO Range 6-28 years Median= 10.29 years Range 2.5 months to 4 years Median = 5.5 months Range 4-17 years Median= 6.04 Months/Years in current position Range 3-6.5 years Median= 5.25 years Range 2.5 months- 9 months Median = 0.46years

Range 1.4 -10 years Median= 4.13 years Highest level of nursing education( select one below) BSN = 2 MSN= 1 MS other = 1 BSN = 3 MSN= 1 MSN= 2 MS other= 1 DNP=1 Certification, Yes/No Yes= 3 No = 1 Yes = 3

No = 1 Yes = 4 Title of Certification CNML= 1 Oncology Nurse= 1 Gerontology Nurse =1 Number of years certified Range 1.5 to 9 years Median= 3.0 years NE-BC = 1 NEA-BC= 2 CPHQ= 1 Range 1-6 years Median= 4.0 years Range 5-23 years Median= 10.5 years

Demographics Previous Experience Orienting Nurse Managers Number of manger oriented Oriented to role of manager Duration of Orientation Preceptor Yes= 3 No= 1 Range 3-6 Orientee Yes= 1 No= 2 One participant did not respond 2.5 months Only one participant

responded Organizational Demographics Organization Demographics Hospital Type: Not for profit = 4 Teaching = 2 Non-teaching = 2 Licensed beds Range 178-651 beds Number of Maintained beds Range = 155-500 Magnet Designated Yes = 3 No = 1

On Magnet Journey No = 1 Pathway to Excellence Designated On Pathway to Excellence Journey No = 4 Yes = 1 No = 3 Number of Front Line Nurse Managers (FTEs) Range 8-26 Mean = 18 Number of Front Line Nurse Manager vacancies Range 0-1 Mean= 0.25 Number of Front Line Nurse Managers hired in the past two years

Range 3-8 Mean = 4.75 Formal Orientation for Front Line Nurse Managers Yes = 2 No = 2 Duration of formal orientation for FLNM Range 3-12 weeks Nurse Manager Skills Inventory American Association of Critical Care Nurses (2006), retrieved from: http://www.aacn.org/wd/practice/docs/nurse-manager-inventory-tool.pdf Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Mean Score

Score Change by Preceptors Manage the Business Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Mean Score Score Change by Preceptors Lead the People Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Mean Score Score Change by Preceptors Creating the Leader Within Yourself Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3 Nurse Manager Skills

Inventory Mean Score Score change by role Manage the Business Time 1 and Time 2 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Mean Score Score change by role Lead the People Time 1 and Time 2 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Mean Score Score change by role

Creating the Leader Within Yourself Time 1 and Time 2 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Domain Subsection Potential Maximum Score Mean T1 Mean T1 Managing the Business Financial Management 55 P = 33.88 M = 36.50

O = 21.63 P = 40.00 M = 41.50 O = 26.00 Human Resource Management 35 P = 25.13 M = 30.00 O = 18.75 P = 27.50 M = 32.75 O = 21.50 Performance Improvement 20 P = 14.00

M = 15.75 O = 11.25 P = 15.25 M = 17.00 O = 13.25 Foundational Thinking Skills 25 P = 16.25 M = 19.00 O= 14.00 P = 19.00 M = 20.00 O = 16.50 Technology 30

P = 21.75 M = 22.75 O = 19.00 P =23.50 M = 24.75 O = 22.75 Strategic Management 45 P = 27.63 M = 27.75 O = 21.88 P = 32.75 M = 29.00 O = 27.13 Appropriate Clinical Practice Knowledge 5

P = 3.75 M = 4.00 O = 2.75 P = 4.00 M = 4.50 O = 3.00 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Domain Subsection Potential Maximum Score Mean T1 Mean T1 Leading the People

Human Resource Leadership Skills 25 P = 17.75 M = 20.75 O = 13.50 P = 19.75 M = 22.50 O = 16.75 Relationship Management and Influencing Behaviors 45 P = 29.75 M = 36.25 O = 22.00 P = 31.25 M = 37.50

O = 29.50 Diversity 15 P = 10.50 M = 13.75 O = 8.75 P = 12.00 M = 14.50 O = 11.75 Shared Decision Making 10 P = 7.75 M = 8.50 O = 5.75 P = 8.25

M = 9.50 O = 8.00 Nurse Manager Skills Inventory Domain Subsection Potential Maximum Score Mean T1 Mean T1 Creating the Leader in Yourself Personal and Professional Accountability 20 P = 14.00 M = 17.00

O = 12.25 P = 16.25 M = 17.00 O = 15.00 Career Planning 15 P = 10.25 M = 12.50 O = 8.75 P = 12.25 M = 12.75 O = 10.50 Personal Journey Disciplines 15 P = 10.00

M = 12.00 O = 8.00 P = 12.00 M = 13.50 O = 10.75 Reflective Practice Reference Behaviors/Tenants 45 P = 30.75 M = 39.75 O = 28.75 P = 36.25 M = 41.50 O = 35.75 Preceptor and Manager Comparison Managing the Business Time 1 Preceptor/Manager Score

Managing the Business Time 2 Preceptor/Manager Score 180 164.5 159 149.5 206 152 145 132 160 110.5 1 2

Preceptor 3 Manager 156 169 165 163 163 3 4 144 4 1 2 Preceptor

Manager Preceptor and Manager Comparison Leading the Team Time 1 Preceptor/Manager Score 95 Leading the Team Time 2 Preceptor/Manager Score 94 95 94 85 80 75 72

74 76 75 75 89 77 60 50 1 2 Preceptor 3 Manager 4 1

2 3 4 Preceptor Manager Preceptor and Manager Comparison Creating the Leader in Yourself Time 1 Preceptor/Manager Score Creating the Leader in Yourself Time 2 Preceptor/Manager Score 88 77 74 62 89

80 73 79 71 67 61 67 85 81 72 37 1 2

Preceptor 3 Manager 4 1 2 Preceptor 3 Manager 4 Leadership Practices Inventory How frequently do I engage in the behavior described? 1) almost never, 2) rarely, 3) seldom, 4) once in a while, 5) occasionally, 6) sometimes, 7) fairly often, 8) usually, 9) very frequently, 10) almost always Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2013), retrieved from: http://

www.leadershipchallenge.com/UserFiles/LPISelfSampleReport-Aug2013.pdf, used by permission Leadership Practices Inventory Mean Score Change over time Preceptor and Orientee Time 1 and Time 2 Leadership Practices Inventory Orientee LPI Total Change T1 to T2 Mean Score Mean Score Preceptor LPI Total

Change T1 to T2 Leadership Practices Inventory Exemplary Leadership Practice Total Possible Score T1 T2 Change in Mean Model the Way 60 P =52.75 O = 50.00 P = 52.75 O = 54.50

P=0 O = 4.5 Inspire a Shared Vision 60 P = 51.5 O = 50.50 P = 51.75 O = 52.50 P = 0.25 O = 2.0 Challenge the Process 60 P = 49.25 O = 50.00

P = 50.25 O = 53.75 P = 1.0 O = 3.75 Enable the Way 60 P = 51.00 O = 50.75 P = 54.25 O = 54.50 P = 3.25 O = 3.75 Encourage the Heart 60

P = 51.50 O =52.25 P = 49.25 O = 55.50 P = -1.25 O = 3.25 Program Evaluation Five-point Likert scale, strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, strongly agree: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The program has increased my understanding of the nurse manager skills. The program has increase my ability to present concrete examples of nurse manager skills to a nurse manager orientee. The program has increased my confidence to serve as a nurse manager

preceptor. The program has increase my confidence in my role and performance of my job as a nurse manager. Overall I found this program helpful to my role as a nurse manager preceptor. ALL Strongly Agree Comments I wish I had this course when I became a new manager. It was a great review for me as a manager with many years of experience. I have found I can never say you know it all. It helped to clarify some areas like finance that I may be weak and to reinforce areas that I may be doing really well. Thanks for the opportunity to be a part of a very needed tool for new nurse managers. This program validated, taught, and has given me a better idea/insight to do a more thorough job in orientating new nurse managers. This program gave me the opportunity not only to learn to precept a new manager, but also to evaluate where I am as a Leader and see areas where I am doing well and I can make some improvements. Thank you for this privilege. The Front Line Nurse Manager Preceptor Assignment with a Front Line Nurse Manager

Principles and Elements of a Healthful Practice/Work Environment (AONE, 2004) 1.Collaborative Practice 2.Improving Communication 3.Accountability 4.Qualified nurses 5.Leadership 6.Shared Decision making 7.Growth and Development 8.Valuing nursing 9.Meaningful recognition Six Month Action Plans Collaborative Practice monthly staff meetings with discussion of goals and outcomes for the unit shared governance reports at staff meetings discussion among unit leadership of progress toward unit goals and staff strengths and weaknesses meeting with departments leaders of other departments to develop relationship for mutual goals that impact patient flow a detailed and specific plan to work with other departments to establish a video EEG program Improving Communication

holding 1:1 staff meetings with all staff members implementing an open door policy for staff establishing a unit communication board, providing staff with education tools to improve communication surveying staff members of preferred method of communication establishing a communication tree for staff in the staff lounge implementing TeamSTEPPS strategies of briefings and huddles daily on the unit Developing Accountability involving staff in the development and review of the unit staffing plan assessing staff involvement in bedside shift report increasing staff accountability to manage attendance and punctuality through manager coaching involving staff in an improvement process to decrease undocumented medications providing staff with freedom to collaborate with other staff members for task completion Six Month Action Plans Staff involvement-qualified nurses Encouraging staff self-scheduling and time trading to decrease absenteeism improving communication with charge nurses to increase comprehension of the staffing budget flexing of unit staffing based upon patient acuity Leadership

to be fair and respectful when interacting with staff to work to better understand personal strengths and weaknesses and then continue to build leadership skills to attend leadership development programs to work toward a transformational leadership style Shared decision making encouraging staff input for unit decision making support active unit council work with staff to develop goals for the unit share data with staff (NDNQI) and share information from nursing councils, PI, Patient Satisfaction and Professional Practice Council Six Month Action Plans Growth and development encourage staff to attend classes offered by the organization and to seek national certification cross train staff to other positions develop a succession plan encourage professional organization participation encourage staff to attend formal education for advancement and flex schedule for school attendance Valuing nursing assuring unit participation in all of the nursing department councils developing a functioning shared governance model on the unit

providing staff time to attend council meetings encourage staff to attend hospital-wide committees Six Month Action Plans Meaningful recognition creating a reward system for staff implement an appreciation board on the unit encourage staff to nominate others for awards develop a unit based employee of the month program, encourage peer nominations for the hospital employee of the month and the Daisy award acknowledge staff accomplishments at staff meetings send personal thank you notes to staff acknowledge staff personally for patient comments on nurse manager rounds and satisfaction surveys unit based celebrations of birthday, life events and holidays caught in the act recognition of staff for positive customer feedback Hearts of Healing unit board for staff recognition Program Outputs Nurse Manager Orientation Document list Nurse Manager Orientation Checklist Meet and Greet Checklist FLNM preceptors to bring tools back to organization

Orient new managers Limitations Program size 4 preceptor participants Program duration Measure of impact to future nurse managers in the participating organizations Future Considerations FLNM preceptors to bring tools back to organization Benefits to Program Participants Orient new managers Training additional FLNM preceptors in the future Repeat the program with additional nurse manager preceptors Add to the ENMO content of AONE Questions References American Organization of Nurse Executives. (2012). Essentials of Nurse Manager Orientation; . retrieved from; http://

www.aacn.org/wd/elearning/content/enmo/enmohome.pcms?menu=elearning American Association of Critical Care Nurses (2006), retrieved from: http://www.aacn.org/wd/practice/docs/nurse-manager-inventory-tool.pdf Balasco Cathcart, E., Greenspan, M., & Quinn, M. (2010). The making of a nurse manager: the role of experiential learning in leadership development. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, 440-447. Benner, P. (1984). From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Boev, C. (2012). The Relationship Between Nurses' Perception of the Work Environment and Patient Satisfaction in Adult Critical Care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 44, 368-375. Bressler, T.&Fisher, M. (2012), Leading Into the Future. Nursing Management, November, 10-12. Cadmus, E., & Johansen, M. L. (2012). The Time is Now: Developing a nurse manager residency program. Nursing Management, 43, 18-24. Casida, J., & Parker, J. (2011). Staff nurses perceptions of nurse manager leadership styles and outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 478-486. Codier, E., Kamikawa, C., & Molina Kooker, B. (2011). The Impact of Emotional Intelligence Development on Nurse Managers. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 35, 270-281. Fennimore, L., & Wolf, G. (2011). Nurse Manager Leadership Development, Leveraging the Evidence and System-Level Support. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41, 204-210. Hawkins, A., Carter, K., & Nugent, M. (2009). Nurse Manager Orientation. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 20, 55-70. Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2013), retrieved from: http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/UserFiles/LPISelfSampleReport-Aug2013.pdf, used by permission References Mackoff, B. L. (2011). Nurse Manager Engagement. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. MacPhee, M., Skelton-Green, J., Bouthillette, F., & Suryaprakash, N. (2011). An empowerment framework for nursing leadership development: supporting evidence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68, 159-169. Maryniak, K. (2013). Development of Training for Frontline Nurse Leaders From Assessment to Results. Journal of Nurses in Professional Development, 29, 16-18.

McLarty, J. & McCartney, D. (2009). The Nurse Manager the Neglected Middle. Healthcare Financial Management, August, 74-80. Palumbo, M., Rambur, B. A., & Boyer, S. A. (2012). Education and Employment Characteristics of Nurse Preceptors. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 43, 472-480. Parry, J., Calarco, M. M., Hensinger, B., Kearly, G., & Shakarjian, L. (2012). An Online Portal to Support the Role of the Nurse Manager. Nursing Economics, 30, 230-232. Shirey, M. R. (2007). Competencies and Tips for Effective Leadership, from Novice to Expert. Journal of Nursing Administration, 37, 167-170. Zori, S., Nosek, L. J., & Musil, C. M. (2010). Critical Thinking of Nurse Managers Related to Staff RNs' Perceptions of the Practice Environment. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42, 305-313. Zwink, J. E., Dzialo, M., Fink, R. M., Oman, K. S., Shiskowsky, K., Waite, K., et al. (2013). Nurse Manager Perceptions of Role Satisfaction and Retention at an Academic Medical Center. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43, 135-141.

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