7 - images.pcmac.org

7 - images.pcmac.org

Chapter 7 Part B The Skeleton Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Karen Dunbar Kareiva Ivy Tech Community College 7.2 The Vertebral Column General Characteristics Extends from skull to pelvis Also called spine or spinal column

Functions transmit weight of trunk to lower limbs surround and protect spinal cord provide attachment points for ribs and muscles Flexible curved structure contains 26 irregular bones called vertebrae in five major regions 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. General Characteristics (cont.) Regions and curvatures 28 long vertebral column 1. Cervical: consists of 7 vertebrae 2. Thoracic: 12 vertebrae 3. Lumbar: 5 vertebrae Remember meal times: 7 am, 12 noon, and 5 pm

4. Sacrum: one bone, formed from fusion of several bones, articulates with hip 5. Coccyx: also fused bones that form terminus of column 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.16 The vertebral column. C1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Cervical curvature 7 vertebrae, C1: C7 T1 Spinous process 2 3 Transverse processes 4

5 6 Thoracic curvature 12 vertebrae, T1: T12 7 8 9 10 11 Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen

12 L1 2 3 Lumbar curvature 5 vertebrae, L1: L5 4 5 Sacral curvature 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx

4 fused vertebrae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Right lateral view General Characteristics (cont.) Intervertebral discs Cushion-like pad sandwiched between vertebrae that act as shock absorbers Spinal cord Herniated portion

of disc Intervertebral disc Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.17d Ligaments and fibrocartilage discs uniting the vertebrae. Intervertebral disc Herniated disc MRI of lumbar region of vertebral column in

sagittal section showing herniated disc 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. General Structure of Vertebrae All have common structural pattern consisting of: Body (centrum), Vertebral arch composed of: Vertebral foramen: enclosure formed by body and vertebral arch coming together Vertebral canal: series of vertebral foramina Intervertebral foramina: lateral openings between vertebrae for passage of spinal nerves 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.19 Typical vertebral structures. Posterior Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen Body Anterior

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. General Structure of Vertebrae (cont.) Posterior Vertebrae have processes: Spinous process Transverse process Spinous process:

Vertebral projects arch posteriorly Transverse processes (2): project laterally Vertebral foramen Body Anterior 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Vertebral Characteristics Cervical vertebrae C1 to C7: smallest, lightest vertebrae C3 to C7 share following features: Oval-shaped body spinous processes are split (bifid) C2-C6 Except in C7 Large, triangular vertebral foramen C7 is vertebra prominens; large and can be felt through skin, used as a landmark 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-2 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-3 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.21a Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Dens of axis Transverse ligament of atlas C1 (atlas) C2 (axis) C3

Bifid spinous process Transverse processes C7 (vertebra prominens) Cervical vertebrae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Cervical vertebrae (cont.) C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) have unique features Atlas (C1) No body or spinous process Superior surfaces articulate with occipital condyles Movement for nodding head Yes

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.20a The first and second cervical vertebrae. C1 Posterior Vertebral foramen Anterior Superior view of atlas (C1) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transverse foramen Figure 7.20b The first and second cervical vertebrae. Posterior Transverse process Vertebral foramen Transverse foramen Inferior view of atlas (C1)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Axis (C2) Has body and processes like other vertebrae Dens knoblike feature that projects superiorly into arch of atlas Dens is the missing body of atlas Dens is a pivot for rotation of atlas Movement allows side to side rotation for saying No 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.20c The first and second cervical vertebrae.

Posterior C2 Spinous process Transverse process Dens Body Superior view of axis (C2) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.20d The first and second cervical vertebrae. Posterior Transverse foramen in transverse process Spinous process Dens Body Photo of axis (C2), superior view 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.21a Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Dens of axis Transverse ligament of atlas C1 (atlas) C2 (axis) C3 Inferior articular process Bifid spinous process Transverse processes C7 (vertebra

prominens) Cervical vertebrae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Thoracic vertebrae T1 to T12 increase in size and articulate with ribs Unique characteristics: Body is heart shaped with two small demifacets that articulate with ribs T10 to T12 have only single facet, not two Vertebral foramen is circular Long, sharp spinous process points inferiorly

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-2 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-3 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.21b Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Transverse process Transverse costal facet (for rib)

Intervertebral disc Body Spinous process Thoracic vertebrae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Inferior costal facet (for rib) Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Lumbar vertebrae L1 to L5 small of back; receives most stress, so

bodies are massive Other characteristics: Flat, hatchet-shaped spinous processes point posteriorly Vertebral foramen is triangular Orientation locks lumbar vertebrae together to prevent rotation 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-2 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.2-3 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae (continued)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.21c Posterolateral views of articulated vertebrae. Transverse process Spinous process Lumbar vertebrae 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Intervertebral

disc Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Sacrum: triangular bone shapes posterior wall of pelvis; made from five fused vertebrae (S1S5) Articulates with L5 Articulates inferiorly with coccyx and laterally with hip bones Anterior sacral foramina: lie at lateral ends of ridges; act as openings for nerves and vessels Alae: winglike expansions 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Vertebral Characteristics (cont.) Sacrum (cont.)

Sacral canal: continuation of vertebral canal Sacral hiatus: large opening at end of canal Coccyx: tailbone formed from three to five fused vertebrae; articulates superiorly with sacrum Very little function 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.22a The sacrum and coccyx. Ala Body of first sacral

vertebra Anterior sacral foramina Coccyx 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view Figure 7.22b The sacrum and coccyx. Ala

Sacral canal Coccyx 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view Body Sacral hiatus 7.3 Thoracic Cage Composed of:

Thoracic vertebrae posteriorly Sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly Ribs laterally Functions Protects vital organs of thoracic cavity Supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs Provides attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest, and shoulders 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.23a The thoracic cage. Clavicular notch Sternum

Manubrium True ribs (17) Body Xiphoid process

False ribs (812) Intercostal spaces 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. L1 Floating Vertebra ribs (11, 12) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior view Costal cartilage Sternum

Also called the breastbone; consists of three fused bones: Manubrium: superior portion Body Xiphoid process Not ossified until ~age 40 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ribs 12 pairs form sides of thoracic cage All attach posteriorly to bodies and transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae True ribs (pairs 17) Attach directly to sternum by individual costal cartilages

False ribs (pairs 810) Attach indirectly to sternum by joining costal cartilage of rib above Vertebral (floating) ribs (pairs 1112) No attachment to sternum 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.23a The thoracic cage. True ribs (17) False

ribs (810) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Floating ribs (11, 12) Skeleton of the thoracic cage, anterior view Ribs (cont.) Main parts of rib: Shaft: flat bone that makes up most of rib Costal groove: houses nerves and vessels Head (posterior end) Articulates with bodies of two adjacent vertebrae

Neck: constricted portion beyond head Tubercle: knoblike structure lateral to neck 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24a Ribs. (for head of rib) Body of vertebra Head of rib Intervertebral disc Neck of rib Shaft Crosssection

of rib Sternum Costal cartilage Vertebral and sternal articulations of a typical true rib 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b Ribs. tubercle of rib Spinous process

Shaft (for tubercle of rib) Neck of rib Head of rib (for head of rib) Body of thoracic vertebra Superior view of the articulation between a rib and a thoracic vertebra 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.24c Ribs. Shaft Facets for articulation with vertebrae Head Junction with costal cartilage A typical rib (rib 6, right), posterior view 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Neck

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