幻灯片 1

幻灯片 1

China University of Petroleum The Application of Architectural Elements Analysis in Characterizing Complex Reservoir : A case study of Yongan town oil field, Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China Presenter Dr. Sun ke Supervisor Pro. Chen qinghua China University of Petroleum 2017.6.29 China University of Petroleum OUTLINE 1 Research review 2 Three advantages 3 Three problems

4 Application example 5 Conclusion 1 Research overview China University of Petroleum Origin The concept of fluvial architecture originated from the studies of fluvial outcrops (Allen, 1983). And then, A.D. Miall systematically defined and graded the elements of fluvial facies, and proposed a method of architectural elements analysis A.D. Miall, 1985, 1988, 1996 . Developing trend Meandering river, Braided river etc. Continuous distribution (Easy to identify and track)

Single channelization Multi-type Sedimentary types Surface outcrop Covered area Research area Delta alluvial fan carbonate bank-dam ect. Discrete distribution (Difficult to identify and track) 1 Research overview

China University of Petroleum Application condition Whether the method can be applied in covered area Exploration stage wide well spacing (Difficult to control distribution of architectural elements) D A T A Development stage close well spacing ( low level architectural elements can be predicted between wells) China University of Petroleum OUTLINE 1 Research review 2 Three advantages 3

Three problems 4 Application example 5 Conclusion Three advantages China University of Petroleum 1 Dividing high frequency layers of reservoirs Tectonic movement Sedimentation climate change Cyclicity Temporal and spatial distribution of sediment Vertical periodicity Hierarchy of reservoir

Plane zonational Hierarchy of bounding surface Hierarchy of architectural elements (A.D Miall, 1988) Three advantages China University of Petroleum Problem The high frequency range is not defined detailedly in the traditional method. Classification scheme comparison of bounding surface and reservoir unit High Resolution Sequ ence Stratigraphy Subsurface Geology of Gas and Oil Sequence Long-term Oil-bearing series System tract

Quasi sequence set Metaphase pay zone Subsequence Level 6 Superimposed channel complexes Single channel Level 7 Meander belt Level 8 Single point bar Level 9 Accretion

Level 2 Level 10 Group formation Level 1 Level 11 Bed series Bedding Level 0 architecture Level 12 Lamina Bounding surface hierarchy of positive sequence A.D Miall, 1988, 1996 Bounding surface hierarchy of reverse sequence

Ji youliang et al, 2012 Architectural elements e.g. meandering stream Sequence Strati graphy Level 1 Megasequence Level 2 Composite basin filling complex Basin filling complex Supersequence Level 3 Basin filling Level 4

Level 5 Level 8 Level 7 Sequence architecture Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Facies Level 3 architecture Bed set Sands group Short period Super short-term Single layer Single sand layers Layer

Lamina groups Lamina Advantage one Dividing the level of reservoir in high frequency, that is, the method of architectural elements analysis defines the high frequency interval of reservoir in detail . Three advantages 2 Analyzing complex reservoir architecture China University of Petroleum Reservoir architecture the geometric shape of a single reservoir sand body and its distribution in three dimensions Problem The reservoir analysis of one dimension (drilling section) or two-dimension (seismic and even well section) coarsens the reservoir architecture, making it difficult to correctly characterize the reservoir architecture, and some complex reservoirs are simplified as " Layer cake reservoir type" Weber and Geuns, 1990 . Simple reservoir architecture Complex reservoir architecture Three advantages 2 Analyzing complex reservoir architecture China University of Petroleum

Characterization content of architectural elements (A.D Miall, 1988): (1) Property of bounding surfaces; (2) Scale of the architectural elements; (3) External and internal geometry of architectural elements. Characterization parameters : thickness, length, area, dip et al. Advantage two Analyzing complex reservoir architecture, that is to say, to analyze the fine genesis of reservoir at specific level by the method of architectural elements analysis. Three advantages 3 Explaining the fine genesis of reservoir China University of Petroleum Numerous studies show that Sedimentary genesis is the main factor causing the internal architecture and complex contact relationship of different reservoirs. How to finely characterize the genesis of complex reservoirs ? Traditional method 1 Sequence stratigraphy Vail et al., 1977 Principle Sea level change Research level Allogenetic cycle above the 4th order sequence Problem Can not explain high-frequency intervals and the genesis of autogenetic cycle. 2 High-resolution sequence stratigraphy Cross et al., 1993 Principle Principle of base level cycle change, Principle of accommodation space change, Principle of volume distribution, Principle of facies differentiation.

Research level Ultra short term cycle Equivalent to the 5th level architectural elements in Mialls plan Problem It is impossible to explain the genesis of architectural elements below 5 th level , and lack of credibility in explaining autogenetic cycle. . Three advantages 3 Explaining the fine genesis of reservoir China University of Petroleum 3 Underground geology of oil and gas fields Principle Stratigraphy Reservoir geology Tectonic geology Sedimentology Research level Small layer (single sand layer or single layer) Problem The research units do not have a single cause of formation, and can not explain the sedimentary origin of complex reservoirs finely. Reservoir architectural elements analysis 1 Fine hierarchy High level to low level , complex to simple Genesis of mouth bar complex Genesis of single mouth bar

Genesis of accretion body of mouth bar Three advantages 3 Explaining the fine genesis of reservoir China University of Petroleum 2 Detailed analysis Multi content, multi angle architectural elements analysis Lithofacies genetic analysis Lithology, architecture, grain size, sedimentary structure and so on, for example, silty mudstones and mudstones with horizontal bedding in the fluvial facies can be interpreted as fine-grained deposits in flood plains Fsm . Bounding surfaces genetic analysis Properties of bounding surfaces, cross cut relation of interface and so on, for example, fluvial facies erode interfaces and cut off early bounding surfaces . Advantage three Explain the fine genesis of reservoir, that is to say, analysis of fine genesis of reservoir at specific level by element analysis of reservoir configuration .

China University of Petroleum OUTLINE 1 Research review 2 Three advantages 3 Three problems 4 Application example 5 Conclusion Three problems 1 Applicable conditions of the method China University of Petroleum

whether the data meets the requirements of the analysis of architectural elements The evaluation includes two aspects: well spacing density and data resolution. Well spacing density Usually depending on the extent of oil and gas field development, development level is, the higher the density of the well pattern is. the higher the The scale of architectural elements at different levels varies greatly, and the lower architectural elements (below 5th order level) of complex reservoirs can be effectively represented under the condition of dense well network (average well spacing < 400m). Data resolution The lateral distribution of seismic data is continuous, but the vertical resolution is too low, and the distinguishable thickness is usually above tens meters. Therefore, the boundaries of reservoir architectural elements can be identified only at higher levels (5 or more). logging data: reaches 0.5m or even smaller, but it can not recognize the architectural elements under 3rd order level. Core logging data: identify the lowest architectural elements (laminae), but they are limited by the number of coring wells, so it is difficult to achieve horizontal comparison and tracking. Three problems 2 Selection of basic research units China University of Petroleum

Problem What level of architectural elements are selected as basic research unit? Over complication If the lower architectural elements(such as laminae) are the basic research units, the bounding surface is difficult to identify and trace, and the sedimentary genesis and the distribution characteristics of oil and water will be difficult to characterize; Over simplification If the senior architectural elements (such as the superposition of the river complex) are the basic research unit of the architectural elements analysis, the internal architecture characteristics of the reservoir can not be characterized, the sedimentary genesis is too rough, and the oil and water distribution is contradictory. Miall has also defined the level of architectural elementsanalysis at 3-5 levels in practical work, the choice of basic research units should be combined with information and research needs. For example, Zhao Xiaoming et al. (2012) in the study of deepwater turbidite channel, the reservoir architectural elements of turbidite channel was divided into three levels by means of well seismic data under the condition of thin well pattern; First levels ( Waterway system ) , Used to study the subfacies distribution of sand formation Second levels (channel complex) , Used to solve the distribution of sublayer and microfacies Third levels (Single channel), Used to solve the distribution of elements within microfacies . Three problems China University of Petroleum 3 Relationship between architectural element sand oil reservoir units The division and correlation of oil reservoir units are important basic work of complex reservoir characterization. It is very important to make the relationship between architectural elements and reservoir units clear.

Architectural elements The geometry, size, direction and mutual configuration of the units in the reservoir are composed of lithofacies and bounding surfaces. Small layer Consisting of one or more single sand layers, having a definite distribution in the same field, lithology and physical properties are basically the same , the interlayer is separated by an interlayer, and the separating area is larger than the communicating area. Same point Pay attention to the division of lithology and bounding surface (interlayer or interlayer) . Different The difference is that the reservoir architectural elements pay more attention to the spatial form of reservoir units occurrence and deposition relationship. Three problems China University of Petroleum According to the distribution of mudstone interlayer between fluvial sand bodies, it can be divided into three small layers, marked as 1 2 3 Figure 2 four stages of channel sand body CH , marked as Figure 2 , within the scope of the graphic section, the 1 and 3 small layers correspond to the sand bodies of the two channels, the small layers 1 and 3 correspond to the sand bodies of the and channels, channels, The small layers 2 are superposed by and channel sand bodies. and channel sand bodies. channel sand bodies. The relationship : Not a simple correspondence or contained relationship, but a complex interleaving relationship, Therefore, we can not divide and correlate the architectural elements on the basis of the division of sand groups or small layers, which is necessary for the characterization of complex reservoirs . China University of Petroleum

OUTLINE 1 Research review 2 Three advantages 3 Three problems 4 Application example 5 Conclusion Application example China University of Petroleum 1 Sedimentary bounding surface division Taking the reservoir of the mouth bar of Es26in Yongan oilfield as an example , the bounding

surface of mouth bar complex is defined as Level 5 , and the bounding surface of the single mouth bar is Level 4, and the bounding surface of the accretion body is Level 3. 1 5th level bounding surface The thickness of mudstone (4-9m) is stable above or under the mouth bar complex, connected the interface between thick mudstone and the mouth bar complex of each well , Two 5th level bounding surfaces are obtained, marked as 5- 5- and channel sand bodies.. SP large negative anomaly , Sandstone purity wellsorted Good porosity and permeability SP small negative anomaly , High shale content , Poor porosity and permeability 1 Sedimentary bounding surface division China University of Petroleum SP large negative anomaly , Sandstone purity wellsorted Good

porosity and permeability SP small negative anomaly , High shale content , Poor porosity and permeability 2 4th level bounding surfaces A stable mudstone is developed in the mouth bar complex, but the thickness varies greatly , 0.54m. The top and bottom of the set of mudstone are respectively connected , two 4th level bounding surfaces are obtained, marked as 4- and 4- and channel sand bodies.. 3 3rd level bounding surfaces The 3rd level bounding surfaces is small in thickness, fast in change and limited in distribution, so it is easy to identify in cores. But logging data usually shows low return or no obvious return point . Connect a, b, c, d, e five points to get a 3rd level bounding surface 3channels, . 1 Sedimentary bounding surface division China University of Petroleum Problem The logging response of bounding surface is very weak or there is no response, so dip prediction method can be adopted. Taking mouth bar reservoir as an example, the principle is that the sedimentary environment and hydrodynamic conditions of a single mouth dam are similar, and the accretion interface has similar trend . According to formula , the dip angle of the known bounding surface can be calculated. Then, the dip angle of other similar bounding surfaces in the same mouth bar can be

predicted, and the 3 interface of other logging responses is not obvious . = arctan(h/L)/180 h/L)/180 /180 m In the formula L:the horizontal distance, m h/L)/180 h: the height difference of bounding surfaces between two wells, : the dip angle of accretion body bounding surfaces, . h/L)/180 h(m) L(m) () 6.2 135 2.6 4.9 126 2.2 5.4

115 2.7 4.7 107 2.5 4.2 92 2.6 2.9 63 2.6 3.2 79

2.3 Application example 2 Sedimentary genetic analysis China University of Petroleum problem The bounding surface description is rough and difficult to describe Sedimentary genesis quantitatively . 1 Sedimentary microfacies maps are compiled in small layers in essence, is the dominant sedimentary facies distributional diagram of the composite genetic sedimentary body Shenghe et al., 2013 2 Application of high resolution sequence stratigraphy, the unit of ultra short cycle division can not characterize the distribution and scale of accretion bodies in the channel sand bar . Application example 2 Sedimentary genetic analysis China University of Petroleum 1 The facies distribution map is compiled by taking the accretion body of the mouth bar as the unit. In the study area, the mouth bar accretion in 6 1 small layers can be divided into 6 stages mouth bar accretion bodies 2 To characterize the appearance, scale and interface position of each

stage. e.g. 1 accretion body thin out near the Y3-5, with an area of 0.18Km2 2 accretion body thin out between the Y3-86 and Y3-100, with an area of 0.32Km2 3 accretion body thin out between the Y3-100 and Y3-147, with an area of 0.40 Km2. 3 According to the relative spatial relation of the accretion bodies of the mouth bar in different periods , the 6 stages mouth bar accretion body retrograde from west to East . Application example 3 Study on oil-water distribution characteristics China University of Petroleum Problem 1 On the plane, the effective thickness zero line does not match the top structure maps of the small layer 2 There are mutiple oil-water interfaces in the same small layer.

Effective Thickness Zero Line runout Architectural elements describe 1 The oil-bearing area of 1 accretion body is 0.097Km2, average effective thickness is 3.2m, unit reserve factor is 16.8104t/Km2m, Using the volume method, the geological reserves are 5.21104t 2 The oil pool area of 2 accretion body is 0.176Km2, the average effective thickness is 3.9m, the geological reserves are 11.53104t. Application example China University of Petroleum 3 Study on characteristics of oil-water distribution Thought First, log interpretation thickness of reservoir, water layer and dry layer of each stage on the well point are read, and draw a plan of the small layer of the mouth bar accretion in each period Second, the small layer plan is superposed with the micro architecture drawing of the corresponding accretion body, and the matching relation between the oil-water boundary and the structural contour is contrasted . Approximately parallelled tectonic lines, the effect of oil-water control is obvious.

The oil-water boundary of the small layer intersects with the structural line, it does not accord with the law of oilwater distribution . China University of Petroleum OUTLINE 1 Research review 2 Three advantages 3 Three problems 4 Application example 5

Conclusion Conclusion China University of Petroleum (1)The advantages of architectural elements analysis in complex reservoir characterization are shown in three aspects : first, dividing the high frequency reservoir Second, analyzing the complex architecture of reservoir; third, explaining the fine genesis of reservoir. (2) It is necessary to pay attention to several important problems in the analysis of complex reservoirs by using the method of architectural elements analysis: The applicable conditions of the method and channel sand bodies.The selection of the basic research units channel sand bodies.The relationship between the architectural elements and the oil reservoir units. (3)The original 61 small layers can be divided into 6 stages mouth bar accretion bodies, and the dip angle of mouth bar accretion body is 2~3 degrees; A sedimentary model with an accretion body of mouth bar is established, and it is considered that the mouth bar has the characteristics of retreating from west to East The distribution characteristics of oil and water in the 6 1 small layers of Yong 3-1 fault block are controlled by the mouth bar accretion body (3 rd order architectural elements ). China University of Petroleum Thank you

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