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EducationSectorUNESCOPublishingUnited NationsEducational, Scientific andCultural OrganizationUnited NationsEducational, Scientific andCultural OrganizationIssues and trends in Education for Sustainable DevelopmentEDUCATION ON THE MOVEBringing the latest thinking in education toeducation specialists worldwideCreated by UNESCO, the series – Education on the Move –focuses on key trends in education today and challengesfor tomorrow. The series seeks to bring research knowledgeproduced by various academic disciplines and withinvarious organizations to those who can shape educationalpolicies and drive reforms. As such, it also intends tocontribute to on-going reflections on the internationaleducational agenda.Issues and trends in Educationfor Sustainable DevelopmentEducation for Sustainable Development (ESD) isglobally acknowledged as a powerful driver ofchange, empowering learners to take the decisionsand actions needed to build a just and economicallyviable society respectful of both the environmentand cultural diversity. This publication comes at amoment of heightened global interest in addressing sustainability challenges through education inorder to achieve the targets of the 2030 SustainableDevelopment Agenda. ESD is not only recognizedas a key enabler of sustainable development but anintegral element of all quality education. By exploringkey issues related to ESD policy and practice, UNESCOaims to help accelerate the reorientation of educationtowards achieving a sustainable and resilient world.www.unesco.org/publishing9 789231 002441SustainableDevelopmentGoalsIssues and trends in Educationfor Sustainable DevelopmentEDUCATION ON THE MOVE

UNESCOPublishingUnited NationsEducational, Scientific andCultural OrganizationIssues and trends in Educationfor Sustainable DevelopmentA. Leicht, J. Heiss and W. J. Byun (eds)

UNESCO Education SectorThe Global Education 2030 AgendaEducation is UNESCO’s top priority becauseit is a basic human right and the foundationon which to build peace and drive sustainabledevelopment. UNESCO is the United Nations’specialized agency for education and theEducation Sector provides global andregional leadership in education, strengthensnational education systems and respondsto contemporary global challenges througheducation with a special focus on genderequality and Africa.UNESCO, as the United Nations’ specializedagency for education, is entrusted to lead andcoordinate the Education 2030 Agenda, which ispart of a global movement to eradicate povertythrough 17 Sustainable Development Goals by2030. Education, essential to achieve all of thesegoals, has its own dedicated Goal 4, which aims to“ensure inclusive and equitable quality educationand promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.”The Education 2030 Framework for Action providesguidance for the implementation of this ambitiousgoal and commitments.Published in 2018 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352Paris 07 SP, France UNESCO 2018ISBN 978-92-3-100244-1This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) license /). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound bythe terms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository a-en).The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expressionof any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or ofits authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCOand do not commit the Organization.Cover design: Corinne HayworthCover credit: Peter Jurik / Panther Media / GraphicObsessionDesign and printing: UNESCOPrinted in France with the generous support of the Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT)CLD 2933.17

ForewordIssues and trends in Education for Sustainable Development is the fifth inUNESCO’s Education on the Move series, which reviews trends in educationtoday and challenges for tomorrow. The series is aimed at providing policymakers, educators and other stakeholders with state-of-the-art analyses oftopical issues. As the world’s leading agency on education, UNESCO seeks topromote and stimulate this key intellectual debate on the future of education.The present volume addresses Education for Sustainable Development(ESD), which empowers learners to take informed decisions and responsibleactions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society,for present and future generations, while respecting cultural diversity.ESD promotes holistic and transformational education. This type ofeducation addresses learning content and outcomes, innovative pedagogyand ‘learning by doing’, and uses a whole-school approach to engagecommunities in achieving sustainable change.This publication comes at a time of heightened global interest in efforts toaddress sustainability challenges through education. ESD is placed at thecentre of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and has been widelyrecognized as a key enabler of sustainable development and an integralelement of quality education. It forms part of Target 4.7 of SustainableDevelopment Goal 4, which by 2030, seeks to ‘ensure that all learners acquirethe knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development,including, among others, through education for sustainable developmentand sustainable lifestyles ’ as well as cutting across all the other SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs).UNESCO is the lead agency on ESD, as recognized in the 2015 UN GeneralAssembly Resolution 70/209. The resolution invites the Organization tocontinue to provide coordination for the implementation of the Global ActionProgramme (GAP) on ESD in cooperation with partners, advocate for adequateresources for ESD; support Member States in building capacity, promote thesharing of knowledge and best practices; and assess progress towards theachievement of ESD.As the lead for the UN Decade on Education for Sustainable Development(2005-2014), the Organization has laid the foundations for ESD

implementation around the world. The extensive partnerships and networksand strong political commitments built throughout the Decade havecreated a broad consensus that quality education in the twenty-first centurymeans learning how to live and work sustainably. This leadership role wasalso recognized in the declaration adopted in 2014 at the UNESCO WorldConference on ESD at Aichi-Nagoya, Japan.The Global Action Programme (GAP), the follow up to the Decade, aims togenerate and scale-up ESD actions at all levels and in all areas of education,training and learning. There is also growing interest in inter-SDG collaborationwith ESD. Through this publication, UNESCO aims to contribute toaccelerating the reorientation of education towards achieving a sustainableand resilient world.This publication presents an overview of ESD and highlights key issues relatedto ESD policy and practice. Topics include key ESD competencies and themes,policy, changes in the learning environment, teacher training, youth as leadactors, scaling-up action, and the monitoring of progress towards Target 4.7.UNESCO is very grateful to the authors who contributed to this importantvolume. We also extend our sincere appreciation to the following peerreviewers for their kind efforts in providing invaluable insights and ideas:Daniel Abreu, Bianca Bilgram, Matthew Cocks, Brid Conneely, Bernard Combes,Sabine Detzel, Robert Didham, Zinaida Fadeeva, Charles Hopkins, DeepikaJoon, Alexa Joyce, Livleen Kahlon, Kate Keough, Miki Konishi, Ragini Kumar,Taru Mehta, Martin Mickelsson, Yoko Mochizuki, Prithi Nambiar, Juan Carlos A.Sandoval Rivera, Bedoshruti Sadhukhan, Julie Saito, Daniel Schaffer, PramodSharma, Cara Smith, Shepherd Urenje, Wilma Van Staden, Arjen Wals, JonathanYee and Daniela Zallocco.I also wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Japanese Governmentfor providing generous financial support for this publication through theJapanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) to UNESCO.Qian Tang, Ph.D.Assistant Director-General for EducationUNESCO

Table of contentsIntroduction.7Alexander Leicht, Julia Heiss, Won Jung ByunNotes on contributors.17Part I: Understanding ESDChapter 1 From Agenda 21 to Target 4.7: the development of ESDAlexander Leicht, Bernard Combes, Won Jung Byun,Adesuwa Vanessa Agbedahin .25Chapter 2 Learning to transform the world: key competencies in ESDMarco Rieckman.39Chapter 3 Key themes in education for sustainable developmentMarco Rieckman.61Part II: Implementing ESDChapter 4 Advancing policy to achieve quality education for sustainabledevelopmentRobert J. Didham and Paul Ofei-Manu.87Chapter 5 How are learning and training environments transforming withESD?Rob O’Donoghue, Jim Taylor and Vivo Venter. 111Chapter 6 Building capacities of educators and trainersAhmad Qablan. 133Chapter 7 Youth on the move: intentions and tensionsPriya Vallabh. 157Chapter 8 Accelerating sustainable solutions at the local levelVictor Tichaona Pesanayi and Chisala Lupele. 177Chapter 9 Scaling ESDFelix Spira and Sirkka Tshiningayamwe. 197Chapter 10 Monitoring ESD: lessons learned and ways forwardAshley Stepanek Lockhart. 215Acronyms. 233References. 2355

IntroductionAlexander Leicht, Julia Heiss, Won Jung ByunEducation for Sustainable Development (ESD) is commonly understood aseducation that encourages changes in knowledge, skills, values and attitudesto enable a more sustainable and just society for all. ESD aims to empowerand equip current and future generations to meet their needs using abalanced and integrated approach to the economic, social and environmentaldimensions of sustainable development.The concept of ESD was born from the need for education to address thegrowing environmental challenges facing the planet. In order to do this,education must change to provide the knowledge, skills, values and attitudesthat empower learners to contribute to sustainable development. At thesame time, education must be strengthened in all agendas, programmesand activities that promote sustainable development. In short, sustainabledevelopment must be integrated into education and education must beintegrated into sustainable development. ESD is holistic and transformationaleducation and concerns learning content and outcomes, pedagogy and thelearning environment (UNESCO, 2014).With regards to learning content such as curricula, the complex sustainabilitychallenges facing societies cut across boundaries and multiple thematicareas. Education must therefore address key issues such as climate change,poverty and sustainable production. ESD promotes the integration of thesecritical sustainability issues in local and global contexts into the curriculumto prepare learners to understand and respond to the changing world. ESDaims to produce learning outcomes that include core competencies suchas critical and systemic thinking, collaborative decision-making, and takingresponsibility for present and future generations.In order to deliver such diverse and evolving issues, ESD uses innovativepedagogy, encouraging teaching and learning in an interactive, learnercentred way that enables exploratory, action-oriented and transformativelearning. Learners are enabled to think critically and systematically developvalues and attitudes for a sustainable future.7

Issues and trends in Education for Sustainable DevelopmentSince traditional single-directional delivery of knowledge is no longersufficient to inspire learners to take action as responsible citizens, ESDentails rethinking the learning environment, physical and virtual. ESD is notconfined to schools but applies to all levels of formal, non-formal and informaleducation as an integral part of lifelong learning. The learning environmentitself must adapt and apply a whole-institution approach to embed thephilosophy of sustainable development. Building the capacity of educatorsand policy support at international, regional, national and local levels willhelp drive these changes in learning institutions. Empowered youth and localcommunities interacting with education institutio