Chapter 88 .1Foundation DesignOverviewThis chapter covers the geotechnical design of bridge foundations, cut-and-covertunnel foundations, foundations for walls, and hydraulic structure foundations(pipe arches, box culverts, flexible culverts, etc.). Chapter 17 covers foundationdesign for lightly loaded structures, and Chapter 18 covers foundation designfor marine structures. Both shallow (e.g., spread footings) and deep (piles, shafts,micro-piles, etc.) foundations are addressed. In general, the load and resistancefactor design approach (LRFD) as prescribed in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge DesignSpecifications shall be used, unless a LRFD design methodology is not availablefor the specific foundation type being considered (e.g., micro-piles). Structural designof bridge and other structure foundations is addressed in the WSDOT LRFD BridgeDesign Manual (BDM).All structure foundations within WSDOT Right of Way or whose constructionis administered by WSDOT shall be designed in accordance with the GeotechnicalDesign Manual (GDM) and the following documents: Bridge Design Manual LRFD M23-50 Standard Plans for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction M 21-01 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, U.S.The most current versions of the above referenced manuals including all interimsor design memoranda modifying the manuals shall be used. In the case of conflictor discrepancy between manuals, the following hierarchy shall be used: thosemanuals listed first shall supersede those listed below in the list.8 .2Overall Design Process for Structure FoundationsThe overall process for geotechnical design is addressed in Chapters 1 and 23. Fordesign of structure foundations, the overall WSDOT design process, including boththe geotechnical and structural design functions, is as illustrated in Figure 8-1.WSDOT Geotechnical Design ManualDecember 2013M 46-03.09Page 8-1

Foundation DesignChapter 8Bridge and Structures Office(BO) requests conceptualfoundation recommendationsfrom GeotechnicalDivision (GD)GD providesconceptual foundationrecommendations to BOBO obtains site datafrom Region, developsdraft preliminary plan,and provides initial foundationneeds input to GDGD providespreliminaryfoundation designrecommendationsIterateBO performs structural analysisand modeling, and providesfeedback to GD regardingfoundation loads, type,size, depth, and configurationneeded for structural purposesGD performs finalgeotechnical designas needed andprovides finalgeotechnical reportfor the structureBO performs final structuralmodeling and develops finalPS&E for structureOverall Design Process for LRFD Foundation DesignFigure 8-1The steps in the flowchart are defined as follows:Conceptual Bridge Foundation Design – This design step results in an informalcommunication/report produced by the Geotechnical Office at the request of theBridge and Structures Office. This informal communication/report, consistent withwhat is described for conceptual level geotechnical reports in Chapter 23, providesa brief description of the anticipated site conditions, an estimate of the maximumslope feasible for the bridge approach fills for the purpose of determining bridgelength, conceptual foundation types feasible, and conceptual evaluation of potentialgeotechnical hazards such as liquefaction. The purpose of these recommendationsis to provide enough geotechnical information to allow the bridge preliminary planto be produced. This type of conceptual evaluation could also be applied to other typesof structures, such as tunnels or special design retaining walls.Page 8-2WSDOT Geotechnical Design Manual M 46-03.09December 2013

Chapter 8Foundation DesignDevelop Site data and Preliminary Plan – During this phase, the Bridge andStructures Office obtains site data from the Region (see Design Manual Chapters 610,710, and 730) and develops a preliminary bridge plan (or other structure) adequatefor the Geotechnical Office to locate borings in preparation for the final design of thestructure (i.e., pier locations are known with a relatively high degree of certainty).The Bridge and Structures Office would also provide the following informationto the Geotechnical Office to allow them to adequately develop the preliminaryfoundation design: Anticipated structure type and magnitudes of settlement (both total and differential)the structure can tolerate. At abutments, the approximate maximum elevation feasible for the top of thefoundation in consideration of the foundation depth. For interior piers, the number of columns anticipated, and if there will be singlefoundation elements for each column, or if one foundation element will supportmultiple columns. At stream crossings, the depth of scour anticipated, if known. Typically, theGeotechnical Office will pursue this issue with the HQ Hydraulics Office. Any known constraints that would affect the foundations in terms of type, location,or size, or any known constraints which would affect the assumptions which needto be made to determine the nominal resistance of the foundation (e.g., utilities thatmust remain, construction staging needs, excavation, shoring and falsework needs,other constructability issues).Preliminary Foundation Design – This design step results in a memorandumproduced by the Geotechnical Office at the request of the Bridge and Structures Officethat provides geotechnical data adequate to do the structural analysis and modeling forall load groups to be considered for the structure. The geotechnical data is preliminaryin that it is not in final form for publication and transmittal to potential bidders. Inaddition, the foundation recommendations are subject to change, depending on theresults of the structural analysis and modeling and the effect that modeling and analysishas on foundation types, locations, sizes, and depths, as well as any design assumptionsmade by the geotechnical designer. Preliminary foundation recommendations mayalso be subject to change depending on the construction staging needs and otherconstructability issues that are discovered during this design phase. Geotechnical workconducted during this stage typically includes completion of the field explorationprogram to the final PS&E level, development of foundation types and capacitiesfeasible, foundation depths needed, P-Y curve data and soil spring data for seismicmodeling, seismic site characterization and estimated ground acceleration, andrecommendations to address known constructability issues. A description of subsurfaceconditions and a preliminary subsurface profile would also be provided at this stage,but detailed boring logs and laboratory test data would usually not be provided.WSDOT Geotechnical Design ManualDecember 2013M 46-03.09Page 8-3

Foundation DesignChapter 8Structural Analysis and Modeling – In this phase, the Bridge and StructuresOffice uses the preliminary foundation design recommendations provided by theGeotechnical Office to perform the structural modeling of the foundation system andsuperstructure. Through this modeling, the Bridge and Structures Office determinesand distributes the loads within the structure for all appropriate load cases, factorsthe loads as appropriate, and sizes the foundations using the foundation nominalresistances and resistance factors provided by the Geotechnical Office. Constructabilityand construction staging needs would continue to be investigated during this phase.The Bridge and Structures Office would also provide the following feedback to theGeotechnical Office to allow them to check their preliminary foundation design andproduce the Final Geotechnical Report for the structure: Anticipated foundation loads (including load factors and load groups used). Foundation size/diameter and depth required to meet structural needs. Foundation details that could affect the geotechnical design of the foundations. Size and configuration of deep foundation groups.Final Foundation Design – This design step results in a formal geotechnicalreport produced by the Geotechnical Office that provides final geotechnicalrecommendations for the subject structure. This report includes all geotechnicaldata obtained at the site, including final boring logs, subsurface profiles, andlaboratory test data, all final foundation recommendations, and final constructabilityrecommendations for the structure. At this time, the Geotechnical Office will checktheir preliminary foundation design in consideration of the structural foundation designresults determined by the Bridge and Structures Office, and make modifications to thepreliminary foundation design as needed to accommodate the structural design needsprovided by the Bridge and Structures Office. It is possible that much of what wasincluded in the preliminary foundation design memorandum may be copied into thefinal geotechnical report, if no design changes are needed. This report will also be usedfor publication and distribution to potential bidders.Final Structural Modeling and PS&E Development – In this phase, the Bridgeand Structures Office makes any adjustments needed to their structural model toaccommodate any changes made to the geotechnical foundation recommendationsas transmitted in the final geotechnical report. From this, the bridge design and finalPS&E would be completed.Note that a similar design process should be used if a consultant or design-builder isperforming one or both design functions.Page 8-4WSDOT Geotechnical Design Manual M 46-03.09December 2013

Chapter 88 .3Foundation DesignData Needed for Foundation DesignThe data needed for foundation design shall be as described in the AASHTO LRFDBridge Design Specifications, Section 10 (most current version). The expected projectrequirements and subsurface conditions should be analyzed to determine the type andquantity of information to be developed during the geotechnical investigation. Duringthis phase it is necessary to: Identify design and constructability requirements (e.g. provide grade separation,transfer loads from bridge superstructure, provide for dry excavation) and theireffect on the geotechnical information needed Identify performance criteria (e.g. limiting settlements, right of way restrictions,proximity of adjacent structures) and schedule contraints Identify areas of concern on site and potential variability of local geology Develop likely sequence and phases of construction and their effect on thegeotechnical information needed Identify engineering analyses to be performed (e.g. bearing capacity, settlement,global stability) Identify engineering properties and parameters required for these analyses Determine methods to obtain parameters and assess the validity of such methodsfor the material type and construction methods Determine the number of tests/samples needed and appropriate locations for them.Table 8-1 provides a summary of information needs and testing considerations forfoundation design.Chapter 5 covers the requirements for how the results from the field investigation, thefield testing, and the laboratory testing are to be used separately or in combination toestablish properties for design. The specific test and field investigation requirementsneeded for foundation design are described in the following sections.WSDOT Geotechnical Design ManualDecember 2013M 46-03.09Page 8-5

Foundation DesignDriven Pile FoundationsShallow FoundationsFoundationTypeChapter 8EngineeringEvaluationsRequired Information for Analyses bearing capacity subsurface profile (soil, groundwater, rock) settlement (magnitude& rate) shear strength parameters shrink/swell offoundation soils(natural soils orembankment fill) frost heave scour (for watercrossings) liquefaction compressibility parameters (includingconsolidation, shrink/swell potential, andelastic modulus)Field Testing SPT(granularsoils) CPT PMT frost depth dilatometer stress history (present and past verticaleffective stresses) rock coring(RQD) depth of seasonal moisture change plate loadtesting unit weights overall slope stability geologic mapping including orientation andcharacteristics of rock discontinuities geophysicaltesting pile end-bearing subsurface profile (soil, ground water, rock) pile skin friction shear strength parameters settlement horizontal earth pressure coefficients SPT(granularsoils) down-drag on pile interface friction parameters (soil and pile) lateral earth pressures compressibility parameters chemical compatibilityof soil and pile chemical composition of soil/rock (e.g.,potential corrosion issues) drivability unit weights presence of boulders/very hard layers presence of shrink/swell soils (limits skinfriction) scour (for watercrossings) geologic mapping including orientation andcharacteristics of rock discontinuities vibration/heavedamage to nearbystructuresLaboratory Testing 1-D Oedometer tests soil/rock shear tests grain size distribution Atterberg Limits specific gravity moisture content unit weight organic content collapse/swell potentialtests intact rock modulus point load strength test pile load test CPT PMT vane sheartest dilatometer piezometers rock coring(RQD) geophysicaltesting soil/rock shear tests interface friction tests grain size distribution 1-D Oedometer tests pH, resistivity tests Atterberg Limits specific gravity organic content moisture content unit weight collapse/swell potentialtests intact rock modulus point load strength test liquefactionDrilled Shaft Foundations overall slope stability shaft end bearing subsurface profile (soil, ground water, rock) shaft skin friction shear strength parameters constructability interface shear strength friction parameters(soil and shaft) down-drag on shaft quality of rock socket compressibility parameters lateral earth pressures horizontal earth pressure coefficients settlement (magnitude& rate) chemical composition of soil/rock unit weights groundwater seepage/dewatering/ potenti