AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020An American National StandardStructuralWelding Code —Steel

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020An American National StandardApproved by theAmerican National Standards InstituteDecember 9, 2019Structural Welding Code — Steel24th EditionSupersedes AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2015Prepared by theAmerican Welding Society (AWS) D1 Committee on Structural WeldingUnder the Direction of theAWS Technical Activities CommitteeApproved by theAWS Board of DirectorsAbstractThis code covers the welding requirements for any type of welded structure made from the commonly used carbon andlow-alloy constructional steels. Clauses 1 through 11 constitute a body of rules for the regulation of welding in steelconstruction. There are eight normative and eleven informative annexes in this code. A Commentary of the code isincluded with the document.

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020ISBN Print: 978-1-64322-087-1ISBN PDF: 978-1-64322-088-8 2020 by American Welding SocietyAll rights reservedPrinted in the United States of AmericaPhotocopy Rights. No portion of this standard may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in anyform, including mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyrightowner.Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use only or the internal, personal, oreducational classroom use only of specific clients is granted by the American Welding Society provided that the appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, tel: (978) 750-8400;Internet: .ii

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020Statement on the Use of American Welding Society StandardsAll standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides) of the AmericanWelding Society (AWS) are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of theAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI). When AWS American National Standards are either incorporated in, ormade part of, documents that are included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other governmental bodies, their provisions carry the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS standardsmust be approved by the governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of those laws andregulations. In all cases, these standards carry the full legal authority of the contract or other document that invokes theAWS standards. Where this contractual relationship exists, changes in or deviations from requirements of an AWS standard must be by agreement between the contracting parties.AWS American National Standards are developed through a consensus standards development process that bringstogether volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus. While AWS administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, orverify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards.AWS disclaims liability for any injury to persons or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whetherspecial, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or relianceon this standard. AWS also makes no guarantee or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein.In issuing and making this standard available, AWS is neither undertaking to render professional or other services for oron behalf of any person or entity, nor is AWS undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someoneelse. Anyone using these documents should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek theadvice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. It isassumed that the use of this standard and its provisions is entrusted to appropriately qualified and competent personnel.This standard may be superseded by new editions. This standard may also be corrected through publication of amendments or errata, or supplemented by publication of addenda. Information on the latest editions of AWS standards including amendments, errata, and addenda is posted on the AWS web page ( Users should ensure that they havethe latest edition, amendments, errata, and addenda.Publication of this standard does not authorize infringement of any patent or trade name. Users of this standard acceptany and all liabilities for infringement of any patent or trade name items. AWS disclaims liability for the infringement ofany patent or product trade name resulting from the use of this standard.AWS does not monitor, police, or enforce compliance with this standard, nor does it have the power to do so.Official interpretations of any of the technical requirements of this standard may only be obtained by sending a request,in writing, to the appropriate technical committee. Such requests should be addressed to the American Welding Society,Attention: Director, Standards Development, 8669 NW 36 St, # 130, Miami, FL 33166 (see Annex T). With regard totechnical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered. These opinionsare offered solely as a convenience to users of this standard, and they do not constitute professional advice. Such opinionsrepresent only the personal opinions of the particular individuals giving them. These individuals do not speak on behalfof AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition, oralopinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding. It must be reviewedevery five years, and if not revised, it must be either reaffirmed or withdrawn. Comments (recommendations, additions,or deletions) and any pertinent data that may be of use in improving this standard are requested and should be addressedto AWS Headquarters. Such comments will receive careful consideration by the AWS D1 Committee on StructuralWelding and the author of the comments will be informed of the Committee’s response to the comments. Guests areinvited to attend all meetings of the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding to express their comments verbally.Procedures for appeal of an adverse decision concerning all such comments are provided in the Rules of Operation of theTechnical Activities Committee. A copy of these Rules can be obtained from the American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36St, # 130, Miami, FL 33166.iii

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020ForewordThis foreword is not part of AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020, Structural Welding Code—Steel,but is included for informational purposes only.The first edition of the Code for Fusion Welding and Gas Cutting in Building Construction was published by the AmericanWelding Society in 1928 and called Code 1 Part A. It was revised in 1930 and 1937 under the same title. It was revisedagain in 1941 and given the designation D1.0. D1.0 was revised again in 1946, 1963, 1966, and 1969. The 1963 editionpublished an amended version in 1965, and the 1966 edition published an amended version in 1967. The code was combined with D2.0, Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, in 1972, given the designation D1.1, andretitled AWS Structural Welding Code. D1.1 was revised again in 1975, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986,1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. A second printing of D1.1:2010 was published in 2011. From 1972 to 1988, the D1.1 code covered the welding of both buildings and bridges.In 1988, AWS published its first edition of AASHTO/AWS D1.5, Bridge Welding Code; coincident with this, the D1.1code changed references of buildings and bridges to statically loaded and dynamically loaded structures, respectively, inorder to make the document applicable to a broader range of structural applications. After the publishing of the 2010 edition, it was decided that the AWS Structural Welding Code—Steel would be published on a five year revision cycleinstead of a two year revision cycle. This was done in order to sync the publication cycle of AWS Structural WeldingCode-Steel with the publication cycles of the AISC Steel Building Specification and the International Building Code.This 2020 edition is the 24th edition of D1.1.Changes in Code Requirements, underlined text in the clauses, subclauses, tables, figures, or forms indicates a changefrom the 2015 edition. A vertical line in the margin of a table or figure also indicates a change from the 2015 edition.The following is a summary of the most significant technical changes contained in D1.1/D1.1M:2020:Summary of ChangesClause/Table/Figure/AnnexModificationClause 1Clause 2This is a new clause listing normative references. It replaces subclause 1.9 and Annex S from theprevious edition.Clause 3This is a new clause that provides terms and definitions specific to this standard. It replacessubclause 1.3 and Annex J from the previous edition.Clause 4Clause 4 was presented as Clause 2 in the previous edition. Annex A Figures in the previousedition were incorporated into Clause 4.Clause 5Clause 5 was presented as Clause 3 in the previous edition. The Clause has also been restructuredto follow the normal progression of writing a prequalified WPS. Table 5.2 has been editoriallyrenamed and reorganized to list WPS essential variables. Additional requirements have beenadded when using shielding gases and a new Table 5.7 was added on shielding gases. Newmaterials have been added to Tables 5.3 and 5.8.Clause 6Clause 6 was presented as Clause 4 in the previous edition. Revisions include the requirementsfor the qualification of WPSs using waveform technology. All the CVN testing requirements havebeen added to Table 6.7, so they now are all contained in a single place. The WPS retestrequirements have been clarified. The PJP Groove weld clause has been reorganized to clarify thequalification of PJP Groove welds using the Joint Details in Figure 5.2. Part D of the Clause hasbeen reorganized to better align the testing procedures and qualification of CVNs with the orderthat they would be accomplished.(Continued)xiii

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020Summary of Changes ause 7Clause 7 was presented as Clause 5 in the previous edition. Revisions were made to the weldrestoration of base metal with mislocated holes.Clause 8Clause 8 was presented as Clause 6 in the previous edition. Revisions were made to thequalification requirements for inspection personnel to ensure that all welding inspectors arequalified. The Engineer’s responsibilities as it relates to Inspection were also clarified. Digitalradiography has been added to Radiographic Testing. The limitations for geometric unsharpnesshave been added to the Code and the equation has been revised to match the equation in ASMEBoiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 2. The methodology to determine theattenuation factor has been updated to reflect that UT instruments are now capable of reporting afractional value for dB.Clause 9Clause 9 was presented as Clause 7 in the previous edition. The code was updated to require themanufacturer’s permanent identification on headed studs and deformed anchor bars. Revisionswere made to provide weld procedure requirements for fillet welding of studs.Clause 10Clause 10 was presented as Clause 9 in the previous edition. The calculations for static strengthof welded tubular connections were removed in deference to AISC design provisions.Clause 11Clause 11 was presented as Clause 8 in the previous edition.Annex AAnnex A was presented as Annex B in the previous edition.Annex BAnnex B was presented as Annex H in the previous edition.Annex DAnnex D was presented as Annex F in the previous edition.Annex EAnnex E was presented as Annex D in the previous edition.Annex FAnnex F was presented as Annex E in the previous edition.Annex HNew Annex that addresses phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT)Annex JAnnex J was presented as Annex M in the previous edition.Annex KAnnex K was presented as Annex P in the previous edition.Annex LAnnex L was presented as Annex T in the previous edition.Annex MAnnex M was presented as Annex U in the previous edition.Annex NAnnex N was presented as Annex K in the previous edition.Annex OAnnex O was presented as Annex Q in the previous edition.Annex PAnnex P was presented as Annex L in the previous edition.Annex QAnnex Q was presented as Annex O in the previous edition.Annex RAnnex R has been modified to contain preliminary design of circular tube connections previouslycontained in the Tubular Structures clause as well as ovalizing parameter alpha.Annex TAnnex T was presented as Annex N in the previous edition.C-Annex HCommentary was added for Annex HCommentary. The Commentary is nonmandatory and is intended only to provide insightful information into provisionrationale.Normative Annexes. These annexes address specific subjects in the code and their requirements are mandatory requirements that supplement the code provisions.Informative Annexes. These annexes are not code requirements but are provided to clarify code provisions by showingexamples, providing information, or suggesting alternative good practices.Index. As in previous codes, the entries in the Index are referred to by subclause number rather than by page number. Thisshould enable the user of the Index to locate a particular item of interest in minimum time.(Continued)xiv

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020Errata. It is the Structural Welding Committee’s Policy that all errata should be made available to users of the code.Therefore, any significant errata will be publis